Diejenigen, die die Vergangenheit vergessen, sind dazu verdammt, diese zu wiederholen (G. Santayana, 1863-1952)
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INHALTSANGABE - Jahrbuch No LVIII des Jahres 2019



MEDIEVALIA
SUSANA ANDEADie Praxis des Schreibens und die Kanzlei des Siebenbürgischen Woywoden (13.–14. Jh.) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
ROBERT-MARIUS MIHALACHEDie Münzen des Mittelalterlichen Siebenbürgens in den Päpstlichen Zehntel-Verzeichnissen (1332–1337) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
KULTUR, GESELLSCHAFT, IDEOLOGIEN, MENTALITÄTEN
ANCA ELISABETA TATAYDas Alte und Neue Rumänische Buch in der Vatikanischen Apostolischen Bibliothek (16.–19.Jh.) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
MIRCEA MĂRANNationale, Konfessionelle Identität und Dynastische Loyalität im Deutsch-Banatischen Grenzregiment Nr. 12 (1764–1872) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
IOSIF MARIN BALOGDie Revolution 1848–1849 in Siebenbürgen: Alte und Neue Historiographische Kontroversen PDF
Zusammenfassungen
ELA COSMADie Rumänische Revolution und der Bewaffnete Widerstand in der Moldau gegen Russland (1849) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
CONSTANTIN BĂRBULESCUDie Bauern in den Werken von Nicolae Bălcescu PDF
Zusammenfassungen
NADIA CRISTEADie Identität der Bessarabier in der Rumänischen Geschichtsschreibung am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts PDF
Zusammenfassungen
DANIELA DETEȘANPrivate Stiftungen aus Mărginimea Sibiului (Hermannstädter Randgebiet) in der Behauptung des Rumänischen Nation (Ende des 19. – Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
SEBASTIAN DRAGOȘ BUNGHEZDie Beziehungen des Teodor Botiș zur Familie Mocioni PDF
Zusammenfassungen
PATRIZIO TREQUATRINIGrossrumänien im Spiegel des „Corriere della Sera” im Ersten Jahr Nach der Verkündung der Vereinigung PDF
Zusammenfassungen
PAUL MICHELSONDie Grosse Illusion: Warum die Pariser Friedensverträge zum Scheitern Verurteilt Waren PDF
Zusammenfassungen
ALEXANDRA PANTEADie Zusammenarbeit der Arader Astra-Filiale mit der Aussenstelle der Klausenburger Universität PDF
Zusammenfassungen
GESCHICHTE UDN DIPLOMATIE
ȘERBAN TURCUȘDas Trugbild der Religiösen Vereinigung (II). Die Rumänische Freimaurerei, der Patriarch Miron Cristea und ein Projekt der Religiösen Vereinigung der Rumänischen Orthodoxie mir Rom (1937–1939) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
VERONICA TURCUȘDie Unerwünschten – die Kommunistischen Behörden aus Bukarest und die in Rumänien Ansässigen Ausländischen Staatsbürger (in den Fünfzigerjahren) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
LIVIU SADOWSKIDer Letzte Besuch von Ceaușescu in Frankreich – July 1980. Ein diplomatischen Misserfolg PDF
Zusammenfassungen
DOCUMENTARIA
LIDIA GROSSDie Übertragung des Eigentums und die Beglaubigung: Das Gut Eriu-Sâncrai und der Konvent vom Grosswardeiner Berg in der Ersten Hälfte des 14. Jahrhunderts PDF
Zusammenfassungen
ADRIAN-BOGDAN CEOBANUÜber die Privatkorrespondenz von George Cretzianu, Generalsekretär des Ministerium für Auswärtige Angelegenheiten (1911–1913) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
ANATOL PETRENCUDie Wissenschaftliche Bedeutung der Memorien in der Erforschung der Vergangenheit: Der Fall der Deportationen aus der Moldauischen Sowjetrepublik (1941, 1949 und 1951) PDF
Zusammenfassungen
VARIA
VARGA ATTILARumänische Gelehrte Jenseits des Pruth – Vladimir Beșleagă, ein Gelehrter des Rumänischen Wortes und Geistes PDF
Zusammenfassungen
BUCHREZENSIONEM
BUCHREZENSIONEMPDF
BIBLIOGRAPHISCHE NOTIZEN
BIBLIOGRAPHISCHE NOTIZENPDF
AUS DEM WISSENSCHAFTLICHEN LEBEN
AUS DEM WISSENSCHAFTLICHEN LEBENPDF


Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Susana Andea  « Back
EXERCIŢIUL SCRIERII ŞI CANCELARIA VOIEVODALĂ DIN TRANSILVANIA (SEC. XIII–XIV)

The praxis of writing in the voivodeship’s chancellery is rooted in the 13th century, with diverse and enlarged applications in the 14th century. Even though the term “voivodal chancellery” may seem improper for the period under scrutiny, the various types of acts as well as a certain continuity in the observance of their editing rules leads us to consider the existence of a trained staff. This trained personnel, originating from the entourage of the acting voivode’s or, on the contrary, externally, is not as much relevant as their education and literacy. Certainly, the writers of the documents issued in the name of the voivode or vice-vice-voivode were aware of the rules of practice involved in the preparation of documents issued by the royal chancellery. The reign of King Carol I (1342), followed by King Louis III the Great (1342) and the enthronement of Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387) have brought about some noticeable changes in the internal procedure of documents, that echoed in the acts issued by the voivode’s chancellery. The Transylvanian voivodship’s chancellery was a miniaturized version of the royal chancellery, and issued almost all types of documents (charters, open letters, closed letters). The voivode’s assignments, who acted as king’s representative in the territory, are illustrated by the issued records – at the same time are revealed the confines of his power, or even the tendency to overcome them at certain times.

Keywords: Transylvania; voivode; voivodal chancellery; documents; writing;

Robert-Marius Mihalache  « Back
MONEDELE DIN TRANSILVANIA MEDIEVALĂ REFLECTATE DE REGISTRUL DE DIJME PAPALE (1332–1337)

The topic of the papal tithes is not a new one, as during the last decade various papers have been published within the national historiography, papers which have mainly discussed the tithe register covering six years (1332–1337); the register was compiled by the envoys of Pope John XXII – the tax collectors Jacobus Berengarii and Raimundus de Bonofato. Nonetheless, the monetary aspect was ignored by the same exegeses. For this reason, the current article presents the realities of Transylvanian currency during the first half of 14th century, as reflected in the Papal Tax Register compiled by the collectors of Avignon – Raimundus de Bonofato and Jacobus Berengarii. The act of collecting the taxes across the Hungarian Kingdom, during 1332 and 1337, which compacted and completed the register, had a beneficial role: the “fossilisation” of information related to the monetary system of the Hungarian Kingdom during the fourth decade of 14 th century. There was also a variety of currency in Transylvania, one that did not necessarily represent an advantageous aspect, but rather on the contrary – the extended monetary panel showed an economic stagnation of the region.

Keywords: coins; Transylvania; taxes; Charles Robert of Anjou; the Kingdom of Hungary;

Anca Elisabeta Tatay  « Back
CARTE ROMÂNEASCĂ VECHE ŞI MODERNĂ ÎN BIBLIOTECA APOSTOLICĂ VATICANĂ (SEC. XVII–XIX)

After investigations carried out in the Vatican Apostolic Library, financed by a “Vasile Pârvan” scholarship, during the university year 2016–2017, we found 114 early and modern books printed between 1640–1862, preponderantly edited in Romanian with Cyrillic letters (97), but also in Greek (15), in Greek and Romanian (1) or in Arabic (1). Precious information is offered by book circulation, resulted from the notes (varied as content is concerned and written in different languages) or from stamps. The 114 books were minutely described and a catalogue is to be made up and published at the Vatican. The present study is meant to render the conclusions of the investigations carried out at Rome. In the last moment, after having examined Virgil Cândea’s book which refers to the Vatican as well, and after having explored the Library site, other 34 volumes were found. Their list has been added at the end.

Keywords: Early Romanian Book; Modern Romanian Book; Vatican Library; Rome, notes;

Mircea Măran « Back
IDENTITATE NAȚIONALĂ, CONFESIONALĂ ȘI LOIALITATE DINASTICĂ ÎN REGIMENTUL DE GRANIȚĂ GERMANO-BĂNĂȚEAN NR. 12 (1764–1872)

Border guards from Banat repeatedly proved their loyalty to the House of Habsburg and to the Monarchy, participating in numerous wars waged by Austria against the Turks, but also on other European fronts. Starting from the privileges granted by Emperor Leopold I during the Serbian Migration of 1690, the idea of loyalty to the dynasty was present among Serbs in the situation in which they enjoyed religious and school autonomy and the exemption from feudal obligations in the Military Frontier, subordinated directly to the military authorities in Vienna. On the territory of the German-Banat Regiment no. 12, with headquarters in Pančevo, there was a heterogeneous population in terms of their ethnic and religious affiliation, consisting of Serbs, Romanians, Germans, Slovaks and Hungarians, and it is from this population that theborder guards were recruited. The ethnic/national identity of the Serbs and Romanians in the villages and towns belonging to this regiment went through several stages during their existence, which became more and more evolved throughout the decades and whichreached maturity during the events of 1848/49. At certain points in this period, their fidelity to the Emperor was partially questioned, but it eventually ended with them maintaining the attitude of obedience to the monarch. The rise of national sentiment in the years after the Revolution did not significantly contribute to the change of attitude towards the supreme power in the following period. The abolition of the Banat Frontier in 1872–73 caused dissatisfaction among the border guards, who saw this act as the loss of the privileges they had enjoyed up to then and the inclusion in the civil society of Hungary, which they considered to pose a threat to the free expression of their nationality and religious affiliation.

Keywords: border guard regiments; loyalty; Serbian Banat; Romanians; Serbs;

Iosif Marin Balog  « Back
REVOLUȚIA DE LA 1848–1849 ÎN TRANSILVANIA: VECHI ȘI NOI CONTROVERSE ISTORIOGRAFICE

For the Romanian historiography and especially for that regarding to the Transylvanian area, the Revolution of 1848 was, over time, one of the most important and constant approaches. Being a historical event with profound impact on all levels of society, historiographical interpretations of the revolutionary events have generated many polemics, expressed not only in the historiography, by means of the national-identity discourse, but also in other fields, such as journalism or even in political disputes lasting for a long time. Explanations of the causes and mechanisms that triggered the revolutionary movements and their subsequent evolution towards open confrontation also contain a strong polemic component, born during the events of 1848 and then transposed insistently and systematically into historiography. Two issues that generated long historiographical controversies, even today, are related to the definition of the character of the events unfolded between September 1848 and August 1849, that led to armed confrontation between the Romanians and the Hungarians. Was it „civil war”? Or „national war”?„Revolt” or „counterrevolution”? On the other hand, the issue of the national war is directly linked to that of victims and material damages, this case being also fueled by many historiographical polemics. Starting from such ascertainments, we intend to analyze some aspects of these divergent topics, based on the interpretations already made by a number of professional historians and, of course, on recently published scientific sources of the late years, which, alongside with other fellow historians, we have processed and introduced in the scientific circuit.

Keywords: Transylvania; 1848 Revolution; civil war; national war; violence; Romanian-Hungarian relations;

Iosif-Marin Balog, Ioan Lumperdean « Back
IMPLICAŢII ECONOMICE ŞI FINANCIARE ALE PRIMULUI RĂZBOI MONDIAL. ÎMPRUMUTURILE DE RĂZBOI

This article aims to outline some aspects of the economic and financial implications of the First World War, the mechanisms and means by which this conflict has been financially supported We will first look at how the war loans contributed financially to support the needs of the front, how the population was called upon to support this effort, and of course, the propaganda of the authorities in this regard. If the budget for civilian spending could be assured from collecting taxes, the financing of the war had to be secured in other ways. There were not many solutions: exports that would provide sufficient resources were no longer possible in the new situation; also, access to financing on the international capital market has become virtually impossible under war conditions. As a result, the only viable solution was the appeal to domestic loans that became a tool used by the state to attract the financial resources needed to support the war effort from the population and the banks. Thus, following the example of Germany, Austro-Hungary has launched a well-organized campaign to contract every 6 months of loans in the domestic market. In total, were made 8 loans. It was considered a patriotic duty of every citizen to support the cause of the war, all these efforts being considered as part of a genuine "domestic front", in which, without exception, all citizens had to be engaged, according to their forces and capabilities. At the end of the article, a statistic of the value of these loans is also presented.

Keywords: World War I; economic implications; Austria-Hungary; Transylvania; War loans

Ela Cosma  « Back
REVOLUŢIA ROMÂNĂ ŞI REZISTENŢA ARMATĂ ANTIRUSEASCĂ DIN MOLDOVA (1848)

Historiography has traditionally described the revolutions of 1848 in the Romanian Lands especially as reflecting the programmes shaped by Transylvanian, Wallachian and Moldavian revolutionaries. The military component of the Romanians’ revolutions was thus neglected. In Moldavia, the first Romanian revolution started on 27 March 1848 was followed by exemplary arrests enforced by local repression troops. As Moldavia also suffered Russia’s first invasion (June 1848) and longest occupation (July 1848 – October 1850), inner opposition was apparently impossible, so historiography focused on the outstanding Moldavian emigration. Our study brings unknown testimonies from the Military-Historical Archive in Moscow that prove the Romanian armed resistance on Moldavian soil. Russian military documents reveal the organization of the Polish South Legion, while Austrian consular reports present the planned Romanian armed insurrection in Moldavia (June–September 1848). The Tsarist sources denounced: the fight for independence and national unity of the Moldavians; their armed efforts aimed at removing the Russians; arms trafficking in Moldavia; armed forces of mountain inhabitants and hunters concentrated in the Curvature Carpathians; the training camp in Grozeşti (Oituz); the guerrilla fighters in the Ploşniţa mountain beating off the Cossacks. In April–September 1848, highpoint of the Romanian-Polish military collaboration was the South Legion of the Polish Republic, sustained by Romanian logistics and manpower, with operational basis in Grozeşti and military deployment in southern Moldavia and north-eastern Wallachia. By autumn 1848, the armed resistance of the Romanians and Poles was scattered and destroyed by the Tsarist troops of the 5 th army corps, led by general Alexander Nikolaevich Lüders. Minutely described by the Russian campaign diary, the military occupation of the Romanian Principalities lasted until autumn 1850.

Keywords: Romanian Principalities; Russian occupation; 1848 Revolution; armed insurrection;

Constantin Bărbulescu  « Back
ŢĂRANII ÎN OPERA LUI NICOLAE BĂLCESCU

This article tries to catch the manner of structuring the image of the Romanian peasant in the work of one of the most important Romanian revolutionaries in 1848: Nicolae Bălcescu. The final purpose of this type of research is highlighting the relation between national identity and a sort of a peasant ideology. Nicolae Bălcescu is both revolutionary and historian.Together with Mihail Kogălniceanu he is the most representative romantic historian that would deal especially with the military history, but also the agrarian history in Romanian Principalities. This latter concern is directly connected with the failed trial of solving the rural question in Romanian Country in 1848 through landgiving to peasants. Even if failed, this first institutionalized trial would open the way for the debates in the following decades and will decisively contribute to solving the rural question in 1864.

Keywords: peasantry; revolution in 1848; agrarian relations in Romanian Principalities; 19th century; revolutionary ideology; political romanticism;

Nadia Cristea « Back
IDENTITATEA BASARABENILOR ÎN ISTORIOGRAFIA ROMÂNĂ DE LA SFÂRȘITUL SECOLULUI AL XIX-LEA

The Romanians living nowadays in the Republic of Moldova trace back their sense of national identity through Romanian language (cherished in the folk background for 106 years under Tsarist domination, between 1812–1918), culture, various economic, social or judicial practices, which have been preserved in a corrupted form during the Russification period of the gubernia of Bessarabia. Any researcher of the Romanians’ History aims to discover in vintage documents genuine evidence of ethnolinguistic, folk and historiographic identity. The historical testimonies are a solid argument for the identity attestation of the Bessarabian Romanians, that fully justify their membership to the Romanian nation. The historical writings mentioned in our article mirror a part of the historical, cultural, social, linguistic aspects in Bessarabia at the end of the 19th century, which join the general aspects of the history of Romanians during this time. We searched for the authors who wrote about Bessarabia, not only historians, but also jurnalists and literates, who found the courage, the time and opportunity to write about, to mention for the first time Bessarabia and the problems it was confronted with. For us, these writings represent a vaste documentary heritage, which enter the competition with the much more numerous Russian vintage writings. In this context, we consider that placing the history of Bessarabia in the frames of the general interest regarding all the territories inhabited by Romanians is not only legitimate, but also necessary.

Keywords: Bessarabia; Romanian identity; 1855–1918; Alecu Russo; D.C. Moruzi; Basarab; Zamfir Arbore; A.D. Xenopol; Nicolae Iorga;

Daniela Deteșan « Back
FUNDAȚII PARTICULARE DIN MĂRGINIMEA SIBIULUI PENTRU AFIRMAREA NAȚIUNII ROMÂNE (SFÂRȘITUL SEC. AL XIX-LEA ȘI ÎNCEPUTUL SEC. XX)

The goal of the article is to underline the role of the private foundations for the cultural, educational and religious support and development of the Romanians from ”Mărginimea Sibiului” at the end of the 19 th century and beginning of the 20 th century. The geographical area under investigation includes 12 Orthodox Romanian communities (Aciliu, Alămor, Cacova, Galeș, Gura Râului, Mag, Săcel, Săliște, Sibiel, Tilișca, Topârcea, Vale) and an Evangelical Saxon community (Amnaș). Grazing, cattle breeding and trade were the basic occupations of the 20,000 inhabitants thereof. The communities had a local medical doctor (Rășinari, Săliște), a pharmacist (Rășinari), a painter (Săliște); they had churches made of solid material and covered with roofing tiles, streets paved with river stone and schools with microscope, thermometer and barometer (Săliște). Despite difficulties caused by the WWI, donations for philanthropic, religious and cultural purposes increased 17 times in Săliște Archpriestship between 1908 and 1918. Most of the money came from private people, who willingly showed huge availability for socio-cultural charity. In Săliște, in 1919, there were at least 20 philanthropic foundations. The most important one, worth 100,000 crowns, belonged to the great businessman Petru I. Comșa. Other major donors were Gligor Daucu from Săcel (60,000 crowns), Ana Jițian from Săliște (30,000 crowns); Alexandru Lebu from Cacova (30,000 crowns), Nicolae and Maria Lupaș from Săliște (10,000 crowns), Comana Mosora from Săliște (3,000 crowns), Maria Micăuș from Cacova (2,500 crowns), Ilie Măcelariu from Gura Râului (2,000 crowns).

Keywords: Transylvania; private foundations; charity;

Sebastian-Dragoș Bunghez  « Back
LEGĂTURILE LUI TEODOR BOTIȘ CU FAMILIA MOCIONI

Teodor Botiş was noted as an important personality of Arad culture in the first half of the 20th century. As a historian, some of his works have received awards from the Romanian Academy. He began his work as a pedagogue for Eugen Mocioni’s children and became a close friend of the Mocioni family, with whom he had been in touch for all his life. For three decades he has participated in the most important events that took place at the Mocioni Castle in Căpâlnăş, being with this family in the most beautiful moments, but also in the most difficult ones. For instance, in 1915, the intellectual of Arad was with the Mocioni family, grieved at the death of Petru Mocioni on the Galician front, and in 1930 and 1934 attended the funeral of two other members of the family, Ionel Mocioni and Terezia de Mocioni. Deeply marked by the drama of the family, but also impressed by the role played by this in the history of the Romanians from Banat and Transylvania, Teodor Botiş began to write a series of articles evoking the work of the members of the Mocioni family. Having access to the family archive, the historian from Arad also wrote the Monograph of the Mocioni family, a work published in 1939 in Bucharest and appreciated by the personalities of the time.

Keywords: Teodor Botiș; Mocioni family; Banat; National movement;

Patrizio Trequatrini  « Back
LA GRANDE ROMANIA SECONDO IL “CORRIERE DELLA SERA” NEL PRIMO ANNO DALLA PROCLAMAZIONE DELL’UNIONE

In the first paragraph, information are provided about the newspaper’s foundation, its political and cultural approach, its gradual publishing development until the first years of the 20 th century, when it became the first newspaper in Italy. The second paragraph provides guidance about the amount of articles published in the first year after Alba Iulia’s Declaration and about topics covered in the newspaper, about Great Romania. In the following report a list of issues of the several published articles can be found: Italian-Romanian brotherhood; domestic and political situation; royal family’s affairs; Romania’s serious situation after Austrian-German invasion; relationship between Romania and Bulgaria; annexation of the new regions to Romania; Romanian dissatisfaction for obtained areas; the 1916 Treaty; the Banat matter; relations between Romania and the Bolschevik Hungary; relations between Romania and great powers, protagonists of the Peace Conference. The following report presents and mentions more than sixty articles out of the total eightyones, which were published in the first year after the Great Union. It groups them according to issues and it begins from the less frequent matters to get to those much more debated by „Corriere della Sera”. In the final part some conclusions are drawn, based on what the analysis of the newspaper articles has shown, and they concern the attitude of „Corriere della Sera” in respect of Great Romania, in its first year of life. The most influential Italian newspaper took a favorable position towards Romania and its territorial aspirations, in the most important year of the Paris Conference.

Keywords: „Corriere della Sera”; Great Romania; Union’s Proclamation; First World War; Versailles Peace Treaties;

Paul E. Michelson  « Back
THE GREAT ILLUSION:WHY THE PARIS PEACE TREATIES OF 1919 WERE DOOMED TO FAILURE

The study aims to explain why the Peace Settlement of 1919 was doomed before it was even created and why it was further undermined, on one hand, by its own failure to include in the League of Nations, as keystone of post World War order, the ”troublemakers” Germany and Russia, on the other hand, by Wilson’s failure to bring the US in the League’s fold. As the 1919 Peace of Paris created four groups (winners of the war and benefactors; losers and revisionists; opportunists; isolationists), it could not lead to true international harmony or balance of power. Based on impressive vintage and current sources, quoting especially Raymond J. Sontag’s considerations exposed in his European Diplomatic History 1871–1932, the study shares a rather pessimistic view, debating concepts belonging to ethics and philosophy of history, highlighting unresolvable paradoxes, antitheses and dilemmas. But even in cases when history does not serve as a real magistra vitae, historians are nevertheless compelled to view it realistically, never giving up hope in ideals and aspirations for morality.

Keywords: Paris Peace Treaties of 1919; failure; Romania; League of Nations; Woodrow Wilson; Constantin Kirițescu; Raymond J. Sontag;

Maria Alexandra Pantea  « Back
COLABORAREA DESPĂRȚĂMÂNTULUI ASTREI ARĂDENE CU EXTENSIUNEA UNIVERSITARĂ CLUJEANĂ

In 1924, as a result of the transformation of the old Cultural Association of Arad into a division of Astra, many conferences have begun in Arad. Their series was opened by the historian Silviu Dragomir, through the conference on December 1, 1924. There followed dozens of conferences held by the representatives of the University Extension in Cluj. The debated themes were diverse, some were cultural, other scientific, representing the totality of the problems facing the Romanian society after the Union, a society that had to modernize and reorganize. Through these, the Romanians in Arad had for over a decade the opportunity to come in contact with many personalities and learn more about the realities of the Romanian world, a radically changed world after the Great Union.

Keywords: association; Arad; intellectuals; guests; conference; Cluj;

Șerban Turcuș « Back
MIRAJUL UNIRII RELIGIOASE (II). MASONERIA ROMÂNĂ, PATRIARHUL MIRON CRISTEA ȘI UN PROIECT DE UNIRE RELIGIOASĂ A ORTODOXIEI ROMÂNEȘTI CU ROMA (1937–1939)

This research relates to a package of unpublished information from the Foreign Ministry of Italy’s Archives. These are documents stating that the former head of Romanian Freemasonry, Jean Pangal, was sent by King Carol II of Romania to negotiate at the Holy See the possibility of the religious union of the Romanian Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church. The information comes from the Italian Embassy to the Holy See and are extended over the years 1937–1939. The Italian Foreign Ministry is interested in this movement of religious union because it could move towards political solutions non approved by Mussolini’s regime due to Romania’s international position gained in this context. The Holy See did not provide any relevant information on this issue to the fascist authorities either in order to interfere not with Italian foreign policy or because the plan of religious union was too fragile and conditioned rather by the King Carol II’s policy than by the wishes of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Keywords: Church union; Romania; Italy; Holy See; Freemasonry;

Veronica Turcuş  « Back
INDEZIRABILII. AUTORITĂŢILE COMUNISTE DE LA BUCUREŞTI ȘI CETĂŢENII STRĂINI REZIDENŢI ÎN ROMÂNIA (ANII ’50)

During the ideological regime of Stalinist inspiration established in Romania after December 30, 1947, foreign citizens residing here became the undesirables of the new society, and the communist authorities went to their institutional and physical annihilation. Several members of foreign diplomatic representations (Yugoslavia, the United States, Great Britain, France, Turkey, Apostolic Nunciature, Italy) were put on trial since 1949. The foreign citizens were investigated in the Malmaison prison, starting from 1952 were concentrated at Mărgineni, and in 1954 were transferred to Piteşti. As the Italian diplomatic documents indicate, the negotiations for their release have had positive results in the years 1954–55, in the context of the détente due to the Geneva Conference in the summer of 1955, but each release was harshly negotiated by the Communist authorities in order to obtain financial, commercial and political advantages.

Keywords: Romania; communism; Italian diplomacy; foreign prisoners;

Liviu Sadowsky  « Back
ULTIMA VIZITĂ A LUI NICOLAE CEAUȘESCU ÎN FRANȚA – IULIE 1980, UN EȘEC DIPLOMATIC

Unfortunately for Bucharest’s regime, the excellent Romanian-French relations established during Charles de Gaulle’s presidency, slowly lost their intensity and consistency, a processes that started with Ceausescu’s visit in France in 1970 and ended with the visit of Valery Giscard D’Estaing from 1979, his French counterpart. As a head of state, in the period between Nicolae Ceausescu’s first visit in France from June 1970 and his last visit in Paris from July 1980, the Romanian and French relations entered a stage of impairment, culminating with a total downfall during the eight decade of the last century. Even though Ceausescu’s visit in France from 1970 didn’t had spectacular economic consequences, the visit represented a diplomatic success for the communist regime from Bucharest, contributing at the consolidation of Romanian and French relations. Our research is based, in an overwhelming proportion, on the documents belonging to the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, sources that can be found at the Romanian National Archives.

Keywords: Communist regime; Romanian-French relations; Charles de Gaulle; Nicolae Ceauşescu; Valery Giscard D’Estaing; Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party;

Lidia Gross « Back
TRANSFER DE PROPRIETATE ȘI AUTENTIFICARE: MOȘIA ERIU-SÂNCRAI ȘI CONVENTUL DIN DEALUL ORĂZII ÎN PRIMA JUMĂTATE A SECOLULUI AL XIV-LEA

The present paper follows, based on four original documents, the transfer of property rights over a land estate, Eriu-Sâncrai, within the same noble family in the 1350s. These economic attributes are relevant to the mechanism that provides to any extended family (descendants of a common ancestor) the perpetuation of ownership over a hereditary possession. At the same time, the four documents publishid in the Annex allow a diplomatic analysis, contributing to the reassessment of the role that the Premonstratensian convent in Dealul Orăzii had as a place of authentication.

Keywords: estate; property rights; family; place of authentication; Eriu-Sâncrai; Dealul Orăzii;

Adrian-Bogdan Ceobanu « Back
DE LA CORRESPONDANCE PRIVÉE DE GEORGE CRETZIANU, SECRÉTAIRE GÉNÉRAL DU MINISTÈRE DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES (1911–1913)

Some of the personal files of the Romanian diplomats which are found at the Archive of the Foreign Ministry of Romania contain also pieces of their private correspondence. The file of the Romanian diplomat George Cretzianu came into possession of the institution as a donation made by the diplomat’s son, Radu, in June 1973. In this text, we have published some of this letters, from the time when Cretzianu was the secretary general of the Foreign Ministry, service he held during 1911–1913. We also outlined some biographical data: the diplomatic career, the evolution within it, family and the closer relation with some of the conservative leaders, which influenced its professional development.

Keywords: George Cretzianu; diplomacy; Foreign Affairs; Romania;

Anatol Petrencu  « Back
IMPORTANȚA ȘTIINȚIFICĂ A MEMORIILOR ÎN CERCETAREA TRECUTULUI: CAZUL DEPORTĂRILOR DIN RSS MOLDOVENEASCĂ (1941, 1949 ȘI 1951)

The scientific restoration of memoirs belonging to individuals exposed to political repression by the Soviet power, especially with respect to the deportation of families from the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to Siberia and North Kazakhstan (in 1941, 1949 and 1951), brings an important contribution in order to understand the tragic truth about our people’s fate. Without the memoirs of those who have suffered during the years of totalitarianism, this history is uncomplete and incorrect. The memoirs of those deported reveal essential elements concerning the reasons of deportation, their living, working and schooling conditions during the deportation etc. They are also defining documents as regards the return of the deported persons from the detention places to their home places.

Keywords: Bessarabia; communist regime; deportations; Siberia; traumatic memories;

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