Cei care uită trecutul sunt condamnaţi să îl repete (George Santayana, 1863-1952)
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INSTITUTUL "G. BARIŢIU"

Cuprinsul ANUARULUI Nr. LV din 2016



MEDIEVALIA
Nicolae EDROIUTipologia mişcărilor sociale din Ţările Române în Evul Mediu şi la începutul Epocii ModernePDF
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Şerban TURCUŞO genealogie cisterciană enigmatică: Pontigny mama – Igriş fiica – Cârţa nepoataPDF
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Avram ANDEAScrisul vernacular în primele documente şi însemnări româneşti din Transilvania (1578-1600)PDF
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Susana ANDEAScriere cifrată şi activitate diplomatică în Transilvania secolelor XVI-XVIIPDF
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BISERICĂ ŞI SOCIETATE
Şerban TURCUŞ„Unirea ecleziastică” a armenilor din Prepozitura Sibiului (Tălmaciu) în secolul al XIV-lea sau despre un mister ecclesial transilvanPDF
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Dan Constantin IFTIMIProtopopiatul Greco-catolic Vişeu: organizare, funcţionare, evoluţie istorică (1850-1905)PDF
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Bogdan ILIEŞEdificarea bisericii vicariale din Şimleu SilvanieiPDF
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ISTORIE, ELITE ŞI ADMINISTRAŢIE
Anton DÖRNERLupta pentru putere în Transilvania perioadei lui Mihail Apafi IPDF
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Vlad POPOVICIConsideraţii privind funcţionarii publici români din Transilvania. Studiu de caz: Comitatul Sibiu şi Scaunele Săseşti care l au format (1861–1918)PDF
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Teodor SMEUCongresul de Pace de la Paris şi navigaţia pe râurile Prut şi SiretPDF
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ISTORIE ŞI DIPLOMAŢIE
Vasile PUŞCAŞ1914 – Reconfigurarea sistemului internaţional de putere şi Europa CentralăPDF
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Veronica TURCUŞRomâni şi maghiari în Clujul interbelic – o mediere italiană pentru reconciliere instituţionalăPDF
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Petre MATEIAtitudinea autorităţilor române în anii ’70 faţă de victimele Holocaustului în contextul despăgubirilor germanePDF
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DEZBATERI ŞI OPINII
Victor V. VizauerAntroponimia din comitatele Arad și Bihor la cumpăna secolelor XII-XIII. Studiu de caz: numele locuitorilor de pe proprietățile Capitlului arădeanPDF
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Cătălin George BICHESCURolul procuratorului în activitatea judiciară din Transilvania. Repere istorice (sec. XVII-XVIII)PDF
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Cristian Vlad CIURDARTeoconismul ca doctrină şi acţiune politicăPDF
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DOCUMENTARIA
Daniela DETEŞANArhiva Protopopiatului Ortodox Sălişte (1848-1937)PDF
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Margareta ASLANO tipăritură a Junilor Turci apărută la Geneva în 1895PDF
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Veronica TURCUŞDiplomaţia italiană şi interesul pentru Academia Română: o comunicare diplomatică din 1955PDF
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VARIA
Dan RĂDULESCUPremisele apariţiei artei moderne în România. Partea I. De la primitivi la paşoptiştiPDF
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Marco SORESINAHealth Legislation and the Medical Profession in Italy: 1859-1978PDF
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Adriana BOGDANHărţi istorice interactive şi animatePDF
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ANIVERSARIA
Marcel ŞTIRBANProfesorul Alexandru Lapedatu – 140 de ani de la naşterea lui (1876) şi 65 de ani de la moartea sa (1950)PDF
RECENZII
RecenziilePDF
NOTE BIBLIOGRAFICE
Notele bibliograficePDF
REVISTA REVISTELOR
Revista revistelor PDF
VIAŢA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
Viaţa ştiinţifică PDF
IN MEMORIAM
Ioan CHINDRIŞ (1938-2015)PDF


Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Nicolae EDROIU « Back
Tipologia mişcărilor sociale din Ţările Române în Evul Mediu şi la începutul Epocii Moderne

The study realizes a typology of the social movements that took place in the Romanian Lands during the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the Modern Age. Based on a structural analysis, the significant conclusions of the study disclose the causes, outbreak and development of the social movements. At first they aimed to stabilize the feudal relationships and the misuses of the landlords, but later, beginning with the 18th century, the social movements – and this is the case, in particular, of Horea’s Uprisal in 1784 – intended their abolishment, as well as the eradication of serfdom, as the majority of the peasants was made up of the serfs living on the noble, boyar, church and state domains.
Keywords: social movements, Middle Ages, Modern Age, Romanian Lands

Şerban TURCUŞ « Back
O genealogie cisterciană enigmatică: Pontigny mama – Igriş fiica – Cârţa nepoata

The study aims to identify the facts that led the Cistercian Abbey of Pontigny to found two abbeys on the territory of today's Romania: Igriş and Cârţa. In order to understand these Transylvanians foundations is necessary to explain the role of the Pontigny Abbey in relations with the Holy See. Between all the Cistercian Abbeysʼ filiation system, the one of Pontigny had been most faithful to the Holy See and benefited from its protection. That protection is witnessed by the fact that the Abbey was functioning as a refuge for the Canterbury archbishops persecuted by the kings of England. The foundation of the Igriş and Cârţa Abbeys can not be assessed in light but only from the perspective of the Holy See requests that were interested in expanding the Christianitas into Eastern Europe, thing that Cistercians are doing by placing them in Transylvania.
Keywords: cistercians, Pontigny abbey, Igriş abbey, Cârţa abbey, Holy See, Transylvania

Avram ANDEA « Back
Scrisul vernacular în primele documente şi însemnări româneşti din Transilvania (1578-1600)

The “corpus” of Romanian texts written in the 16th century consisted so far of 117 documents, all of them already published. The author of the present article adds three more texts composed in Transylvania. As forms of written communication, the new additions include a letter (1578), a fiscal receipt (“ţidula”, dated August 14th, 1600), and a personal annotation on an official document issued on February 4th, 1598. All these documents are thoroughly analyzed from a diplomatic point of view, with a specific focus on the formulary and their semi-cursive palaeographic features. There are also additional observations concerning linguistic, lexical and grammar elements.
Keywords: Transylvania, documents, Cyrillic semi-cursive script, rhotacism

Susana ANDEA « Back
Scriere cifrată şi activitate diplomatică în Transilvania secolelor XVI-XVII

This paper attempts for the first time, and in relation with the general European practice, an evaluation of the cryptographic correspondence, as it was used in diplomatic activity from Transylvania. The analysis considers a long period of time, from the first evidences concerning the use of the cyphers until 1700, however insisting on the reigns of the two Rakozi princes. Two central issues are addressed: on the one hand, the cryptographic writing in the diplomatic correspondence with the Ottoman Empire, on the other hand, its use in relation to Habsburg Austria. The author discovers that coded writing was present even in the domestic correspondence between the members of princely council in the second half of the 17th century on subjects of diplomatic, political and military nature. The solutions for encryption employed in this time were all very well known in Europe of that period: substituting letters with numbers, changing the meaning of certain letters or the use of so called signum mutum or nullita, and often the special coding of frequently used words.
Keywords: cryptography, Transylvania, Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Empire, Michael Apafi.

Şerban TURCUŞ « Back
„Unirea ecleziastică” a armenilor din Prepozitura Sibiului (Tălmaciu) în secolul al XIV-lea sau despre un mister ecclesial transilvan

The study refers to the meteoric presence in medieval documents from Transylvania (1355) of an Armenian bishop named Martin of Tălmaciu, vicar of the archbishop of Esztergom. We think it is an interesting case for the implementation of the subordination's policy of the Armenian Rite by the figure of a vicar bishop or a diocesan vicar to the authority of the archbishop that oversees the ecclesiastical discipline in the territory of the provostship of Sibiu. In this business is involved also the cistercian abbey of Cârţa, that may have been implicated in the admission of the Armenians of Tălmaciu under the obedience of the Roman Church.
Keywords: Transylvania, Armenian, cistercian, Sibiu, Cârţa

Dan Constantin IFTIMI « Back
Protopopiatul Greco-catolic Vişeu: organizare, funcţionare, evoluţie istorică (1850-1905)

The history of the Romanian people is the history of a people that permanently fought with the empires from the neighbourhood, in order to keep and protect the ethnic being, the language, the religion. This fight had an impact over the Romanian people’s conceptions and way of life and in the modern epoch of the Romanians’ history, it passed into a new stage, a superior one, the moment the new economic, social and political conditions appeared, when the Romanian nation strongly distinguished itself, when the Romanian modern state was set up, when the European peoples struggled for national freedom from under the Habsburgic, Ottoman and Czarist empire. Undoubtedly, the period from the second half of the XIX-th century and the beginning of the XX-th, up to the First World War, was a very important one in the national history of the Romanians. Within this period the Romanian society from Transylvania, influenced by the general European evolution knew many changes at all levels. The paper approaches, on the one hand, the origin and evolution of the Archpriestship, and on the other hand, it brings to the knowledge of the reader, the archpriests from Vişeu. In what the archpriest is concerned, it is shown his training, the Church always paying attention to the priests’ training, their role and tasks, the archpriest being appointed to execute the bishop’s orders and to make known to him the clergy’s grievances and petitions. Considering the archpriest’s function of school inspector too, his didactic tasks are also shown. The church life knew important evolutions and in spite of the secularization current, the Church was an institution of extreme importance for the Romanian community till the First World War. On the one side the archpriest’s and Archdiocese authority, had an important role as indicator agent, and on the other side, the parishioners contributed to the keeping of the ethnic being, of the confessional and national identity. In the second half of the XIX-th century, the Church remains a strong support for the nation, representing an ethnic and national identification factor. When the situation asked for, the Church knew how to gather the believers and how to train them in order to preserve the Christian spirituality and to keep the national rights. The Church, through its servants, understood that it was necessary to share the tasks between the mind lightning and the souls’ purification. It is not only an old, important institution that throughout the times had to face adversities, never being defeated, but it is more than that, a way of life and living, a belief, a bridge for reconciliation between all those that are transitory and perpetual. This is also the reason why people do not perceive it only as servants, but mainly as living persons in church or the church itself .
Keywords: archpriest, Greek-Catholic, competences and achievements

Bogdan ILIEŞ « Back
Edificarea bisericii vicariale din Şimleu Silvaniei

The Vicarage of Sylvania had an undeniable contribution to the evolution of the Romanian society in Northwest Transylvania, in the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. The central role played by the Vicarage in this respect and its social prestige were also revealed by the building of the vicarial church in Şimleu Silvaniei which, due to the duration and complexity of the process, as well as to the factors involved, was a very special case. Built with the material support of the State and the sustained efforts of several vicars in the second half of the nineteenth century, but consecrated only in 1930, this church has an important identity connotation due to its role and social impact. This paper brings to the fore some of the significant efforts made for the building of this place of worship so as to capture its distinctive history, which is far different from that of other churches built in Sălaj in the second half of the nineteenth century. We present the actions taken by the vicar Alexandru Sterca Şuluţiu before the central secular and ecclesiastical authorities to ensure the material support needed to build a new vicarial church, the constraints faced by the vicar Demetriu Coroianu in finding suitable land to build the church on, and the involvement of the Oradea Construction Office in drafting the necessary documentation and selecting a contractor to build the church. In addition, we present the involvement of the local community in the building, completion and decoration of the new vicarial church, made in the spirit of the freedom and national equality felt in that period.
Keywords: the Vicarage of Sylvania, Sălaj, building of churches, local community, social prestige

Anton DÖRNER « Back
Lupta pentru putere în Transilvania perioadei lui Mihail Apafi I

Various aspects of the Transylvanian princedom from the second half of 17th century did not arouse any special interest to the Romanian or foreign historians, the historical phase mentioned being perceived as a period of downfall of the country. Without having a solid analysis historiography wrongly blames the causes of the downfall on the multiple weaknesses of political nature of prince Mihail Apafi I. Not much is mentioned about the negative role played in these processes by some noble circles, although the internal and external plots organized by them were frequent throughout the three decades of governance. This material signals aspects of these repeated assaults of the leading elite to get power, as well as the counteraction measures taken by the prince to maintain stability and territorial integrity of Transylvania.
Keywords: Transylvania, Mihail Apafi I, the Porte, Mihail Teleki, Dionisie Banfi, Princely Court

Vlad POPOVICI « Back
Consideraţii privind funcţionarii publici români din Transilvania. Studiu de caz: Comitatul Sibiu şi Scaunele Săseşti care l au format (1861–1918)

The paper deals with three aspects related to Romanian civil servants in Transylvania between 1861 and 1918. It begins with a short overview of the Romanian historical writing, which up until the last decade, showed very little interest in the subject. Second, a case study on the southern regions of Transylvania (mainly the Saxon sees forming the post-1876 county of Szeben) is meant to identify the actual Romanian presence within the civil servants’ corps, while highlighting some practical and methodological issues, which an extended research on the subject needs to take into consideration. A special focus point within the case study is represented by the extent to which biographical data on Romanian clerks is available in various sources. The final part of the paper sheds some light on the complicated entanglement between the Romanian civil servants and the national political and cultural movement, presenting its evolution during the Liberal and Dualist periods, together with its echoes into historiography.
Keywords: civil servants, Romanians, Transylvania, 19th century, Saxon sees

Theodor SMEU « Back
Congresul de Pace de la Paris şi navigaţia pe râurile Prut şi Siret

Both Pruth and Sireth Rivers are discharging in the Danube near the Galatz City on the Lower Danube. Since the beginning of the 18th century first Austria and second Russia were more and more interested on the Lower Danube. In the 1850’s several countries established consulates at Galatz. In the time of the Crimean War Austria forced Russia to retreat from the Principalities and occupied them. Austria tried to replace the Russian protectorate over the Principalities whit its own but the Treaty of Paris established to put the Principalities under the joint protection of the great Powers. At the end of his reign Grigore Alexandru Ghica, hospodar of Moldavia, granted a navigation exclusive right on the rivers Pruth and Sireth for 30 years to a French captain named Magnan. Granting the right dissatisfied Austria which considered this as an act of interfering in its own area of influence. Because of that Austria started to make pressures on Ottoman Empire to cancel the right. In the end the Porte cancelled the right and dissatisfied France.
Keywords: river navigation, captain Magnan, navigation privilege, freedom of navigation, Moldova

Vasile PUŞCAŞ « Back
1914 – Reconfigurarea sistemului internaţional de putere şi Europa Centrală

The author starts its presentation with the issue of common perception regarding the “Great Illusion” about peace and war in 1914.He underlines the background for a conflict of great proportion, the balance of power of that time, and the causes of WW I .The article shows how the Central and East European Powers developed a conservative approach of European and International System during a period when there were many inputs for changing the old international system in order to implement new international policies for a new world order.
Keywords: international system, balance of power, World War I, Central Europe, Balkans, bipolarization, conservatism, collective security, world order

Veronica TURCUŞ « Back
Români şi maghiari în Clujul interbelic – o mediere italiană pentru reconciliere instituţională

The study refers to a moment in the institutional life of the interwar city of Cluj. It's about the concert held on April 12, 1934 by Enrico Mainardi organized by the Italian consulate in Cluj. On this occasion it takes place the first participation of the Hungarian community in Cluj in an event organized in the establihments of the Romanian administration. This, thanks to a special political context in which this participation of the Hungarian community expressed the satisfaction with Benito Mussolini's position in the external relations with Hungary.
Keywords: Cluj, diplomacy, Italy, romanian administration, hungarian society

Petre MATEI « Back
Atitudinea autorităţilor române în anii ’70 faţă de victimele Holocaustului în contextul despăgubirilor germane

Although the Holocaust was neglected and minimized in communist Romania, starting with 1967 (restoration of diplomatic relations between Romania and West-Germany) the Romanian authorities made efforts to obtain compensations from West-Germany for the victims of Nazi persecutions. However, this meant no real change in the way Romania dealt with its own recent past (the anti-Semitic and anti-Roma measures during WWII taken by the Romanian authorities), which tended to be ignored. It was considered more profitable for Romania to externalize its own guilt by blaming exclusively West Germany, from which they hoped to obtain hard currency. The Romanian secret services played an important role in organizing this process. According to the way the Romanian authorities acted, the process had two phases: 1) 1967-1970 - unofficial phase (through intermediaries); 2) since March 1970 –official phase (the Romanian government decided to negotiate directly with the West-German authorities). Within a year, on March 2, 1971, more than 155.000 compensation claims were submitted (mostly for Jewish and Roma victims). In May 1971, fearing a domino effect, the German government decided to refuse any compensation payments to Romania and other communist states.
Keywords: Holocaust, Wiedergutmachung, Reparations, Diplomatic relations: Romania-West Germany

Victor V. Vizauer « Back
Antroponimia din comitatele Arad și Bihor la cumpăna secolelor XII-XIII. Studiu de caz: numele locuitorilor de pe proprietățile Capitlului arădean

Anthroponyms represent an important mirror for the historical situation of the Arad and Bihor counties during the late 12th century and also at the beginning of the following one. Typical of the situation previous to the anthroponymical uniformisation promoted by the Christian Church especially starting with the second half of the 13th century, the names of the period had in view „speak” about the ethnic groups who cohabited in this part of Europe and whose cultural traits gave rise to a unique medieval culture. The anthroponyms vary widely, from Latin, Hungarian and German to Greek, Jewish, Romanian or Cuman. All of these old names, not just the Christian ones, are also characterised by another important aspect: they have a meaning in their original language. Where I could, I established this sense, but in many causes I have failed. Hopefully, future research will solve these important issues.  « Back

Keywords: 12th century, anthroponymy, medieval history, ethnic groups

Cătălin George Bichescu « Back
Rolul procuratorului în activitatea judiciară din Transilvania. Repere istorice (sec. XVII-XVIII)

The analysis of the role which the attorneys had in the judicial life of Transylvania between the 16th – 18th centuries started from the presentation of the legal framework included in Approbatae Constitutiones and continued with the presentation of some reference points of the way in which the attorneys exercised the defence function, within the various judicial proceedings. The judicial fight between prosecution and defence, the exceptions, the petitions and defences of culprits were pointed out also by reviewing a procedure carried out in Cluj county, with Kovács Benedek as subject, the procedure taking place between 27 April – 30 June 1785.
Keywords: Transylvania, attorneys, judicial proceedings, defence function, prosecution

Cristian Vlad CIURDAR « Back
Teoconismul ca doctrină şi acţiune politică

Theoconism makes its presence felt in the field of classical political doctrines, being an elitist political formula, intelectualized by the American political conservative spectrum that manages to respond to the challenges of secularization through theology in political matters. In the analysis of the theocon movement, we decided to display theoconism gradually using three didactical stages, similar to the responses of the political group to social and global challenges : the infrastructure of power, a segment in which we analyze the adherence of the theocon doctrine to the American civil society, the instruments of power, the modality of access of the theocon doctrine in the ideatic national and global field and, the most important aspect, the construction of the modern crusade, a strategy structured on the recovering of the Medieval institution of the crusade from a modern perspective, as a defensive response to the global terrorism. It is difficult to estimate that theoconism will not be present in the public debates in the years to come, the advance of islamism assures theoconism’s powerful ideological uprising in the social and cultural conflict.
Keywords: Theocon, Theoconism, Thomist, Modern Crusade, Christian Political Doctrine, Political Theology, Christian Counterculture, GWOT, The Bush Doctrine

Daniela DETEŞAN « Back
Arhiva Protopopiatului Ortodox Sălişte (1848-1937)

This article explores the importance of one ecclesiastical archive compiled by the Romanian Orthodox Deanery of Sălişte during 1848 and 1937. The main goal is to describe these sources, examine the nature of their contents, and consider how they can be used individually or together to research the history of the so-called region „Mărginimea Sibiului”. The archive preserves detailed records about vital events as birth, marriage and death. They also provide key information about churches, priests, teachers, schools. The registers allow us to learn more about morals and customs, including popular culture, popular costumes, handmade industry products. Scholars interested in the history of family can use the registers to find data on migration patterns and the ways that family structures changed over time, what is the population size, the density of communities and the occupational structure, while those researching Romanian local elites can also reconstitute the life course of priests and teachers with known background, literacy, occupations, eventual marriage(s) and migratory moves. Other ecclesiastical records provide important information on local social and economic structures, as well as the ways in which they could change over time. The existence of Sălişte ecclesiastical sources provides us with a unique opportunity to use archival data along with information collected from other sources in order to better understand local social structures, customs, and the lives of the Romanian‘s men and women.
Keywords: ecclesiastical archive, the Romanian Orthodox Deanery of Sălişte, rich shepherd communities, Transylvania

Margareta ASLAN « Back
O tipăritură a Junilor Turci apărută la Geneva în 1895

The starting point of this study was an unidentified leaflet written in Ottoman Turkish, located in the fund of the Orientalist Kuun Géza in the Cluj National Archives. The study is structured around the history of the work and its author. It was proven to be a very rare copy of the first issue of the Khutbahs printed by Hilmi Tunalı an important leader of the opposition movement of Young Turks, published in Geneva immediately after the author was forced to leave Ottoman Empire because of the Sultan’s repressions against oppositionists. The rareness of the issue is due to the fact that the first issues were purchased for 4,000 francs by the Sultan’s envoy, who was sent to Europe to negotiate with the elites the ceasing of the oppositionist movement and to gather the printed issues and their matrices. With the proceeds from sale of the Khutbahs their author managed to organize new associations and new specialized press organs. The Khutbahs were an important mobilizing factor in the actions of Young Turks for “saving the state” through Tunali’s perceptions promoting the idea of creation of a modern Ottoman society model and they were addressed to all Ottomans regardless of ethnicity, as “citizens” of the Ottoman Empire.
Keywords: Hilmi Tunalı, Young Turks, Khutbahs, Elites, Kuun Géza

Veronica TURCUŞ « Back
Diplomaţia italiană şi interesul pentru Academia Română: o comunicare diplomatică din 1955

The study refers to the interest of the Italian diplomacy to the Romanian Academy in 1955. The interest is significant because it comes after a period of extreme tension between parties, being 1955 a year of a relative relaxation of the relation. In this context the Romanian Academy attempts to overcome the Soviet camp and initiates relations with Western countries. The analysis of the Italian diplomat surprising the Romanian Academy 1955 elections and the review of the typical Stalinist attitude taken in previous years.
Keywords: Romania, Italy, diplomacy, Romanian Academy, communism

Dan RĂDULESCU « Back
Premisele apariţiei artei moderne în România. Partea I. De la primitivi la paşoptişti

The first signs of the changes in the Romanian medieval art began in the late 18 th century and can be materialized by paying more and more importance to the lay character. The 19th century was characterized, since its beginning, by the presence of the easel painting technique, having its origins in the Western culture and it will play, by itself, a different role in contrast with the traditional art painting. For this reason, the entire painting technique of the time, regardless the themes-the portrait, the allegory, historical or specific manner – will capture the changes experienced by the Romanian society for almost a century. In the same way, the social status of the artist suffered a series of transformations which will influence as well the creative art (their artistic output). The connection of the Romanian painting technique with the contemporary European art was fulfilled at a rapid pace, including a generation of foreign painters settled in the Romanian countries, setting up belle art courses and art exhibitions Also, in the late 19th century appeared the first Romanian painters graduating foreign universities. This article tries to summarize the very methamorfosis of art and the artistic world, not only by explaining the transition from tradition to modernity, but also by selecting and analysing the works which have made it possible.
Keywords: painting, medieval versus modern, portrait, history painting

Marco SORESINA « Back
Health Legislation and the Medical Profession in Italy: 1859-1978

Covering an extended historical periodisation, this essay examines Italian healthcare politics, comparing them to the increasing influence of medical doctors and their ability to influence the legislature in decision making. The key element to emerge from this study is the substantial continuity of objectives from the period of the construction of the Italian State up to the 1970s. In that phase, public health is to be understood predominantly as ‘health policing’, that is to say as a branch of the power the executive held over society (epidemics, degenerative illnesses, care for the poor). The increased demand for healthcare from private individuals, in most cases based on insurances, alongside the ability of the medical body to create an identity for itself as the country’s critical conscience in terms of sanitation and the spread of disease, progressively widened the responsibilities of public healthcare, thus complicating issues of its organisation and management. The 1978 reform, not without its own quandaries, marks a moment of discontinuity with the previous model, surpassing the limitations of healthcare policing, widening the concept of health and freeing treatment from provident insurances by financing it through general taxation.
Keywords: history of professions, history of health laws, welfare, medical associations (history), public health, history of public administration, social history

Adriana BOGDAN « Back
Hărţi istorice interactive şi animate

Digital historical maps may display on the screen of intelligent devices more than spatial representations, valid at a certain specific, located moment. Interactive maps are rounded up by complementary information, which becomes visible by activating certain layers while placing / activating the mouse in a certain position on the map (on either a bookmark or on the legend). GIS Maps, represented through geographic coordinates, complete the information by data extracted from associated data bases, the 3D maps add the space visualization perception as well, whereas virtual maps bring forward virtual reconstructions of artifacts / historical objectives. Animated maps display evolutions of certain events unfolded over time and space (temporal maps) or any other types of modifications (non-temporal maps). The visual information may be completed by acoustic effects or by explanatory information in audio format. The target public is formed of teachers, pupils, students and history lovers regardless their age, who access the information on computers, tablets or smartphones.
Keywords: interactive maps, animated maps, GIS maps, virtual maps, 3D maps

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