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INSTITUTUL "G. BARIŢIU"

Cuprinsul ANUARULUI Nr. LIV din 2015



MEDIEVALIA
Victor V. VIZAUERRolul onomasticii în cercetarea istoriei Transilvaniei în secolele XII-XIII. Studiu de caz: etnotoponimelePDF
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Robert-Marius MIHALACHEAspectele istorico-economice ale episcopiei Transilvaniei reflectate de Registrul de dijme (1332-1337)PDF
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Avram ANDEAÎntre ştiinţa de carte şi cursus honorum: Ştefan Raţ (cca 1670-†1720)PDF
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BISERICĂ, ECONOOMIE, SOCIETATE, CULTURĂ
Ioan LUMPERDEANIstoria economiei regionale: diagnoza şi metodologia cercetăriiPDF
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Ciprian GLĂVANRevoluţia de la 1848-1849 în oglinda presei de limbă germană din BanatPDF
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Aurel RĂDUŢIUNicolae Sentivani în Revoluţia românilor de la 1848PDF
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Ioan COZMALiteratura teologică ortodoxă şi de cult din Transilvania. Cărţi tipărite şi de circulaţie (1867-1918)PDF
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Róbert NAGYLocul şi ponderea Văii Jiului în economia Dublei Monarhii 1880-1918PDF
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Mihaela GRANCEABetween Passive and Active Anti-Semitism. From the Greek-Catholic Publications Concerning the Solution of the “Jewish Problem” in Europe and RomaniaPDF
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Lucio VALENTAn Anglican church in Bucharest. The British Anglican Church in Bucharest and the Foreign Office Strategy towards RomaniaPDF
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Irina NASTASĂ-MATEIFilierele migraţiei studenţeşti către Germania nazistăPDF
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Katalin OANŢĂSituaţia învăţământului în limba maghiară sub regimul lui Gheorghe Gheorghiu-DejPDF
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Adi DOHOTARUPortraits of Young Socialists: Moral Standing and Socializing PlacesPDF
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Lönhárt TAMÁSÎntre demersuri de integrare politică şi rezistenţă intelectuală. Strategii ale elitelor intelectuale maghiare din România (1968-1989)PDF
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ISTORIE ŞI DIPLOMAŢIE
Flaviu Vasile RUSSpania – o istorie între monarhie şi dezideratul republicanPDF
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Elena-Steluţa DINURelaţiile româno-ruse în perioada neutralităţii (21iulie/3 august 1914 – 14/27 august 1916)PDF
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Şerban TURCUŞNemulţumirea profundă a intelectualilor maghiari clujeni faţă de Dictatul de la Viena. O notă diplomatică din 1941PDF
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Veronica TURCUŞLimitele metodologice ale memorialisticii. Un raport diplomatic despre prezumtivul proiect al Regelui Mihai de plecare în Italia MeridionalăPDF
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Alexandru Ioan HELTIANUUn episod din politica de cadre a Ministerului Afacerilor Externe sub conducerea Anei Pauker: numirea şefului de misiune la Roma în 1949PDF
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DOCUMENTAR
Susana ANDEAConsideraţii referitoare la practica falsificărilor de acte în Transilvania (sec. XIII-XVII)PDF
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Zita HAIDUCŢările Române în Chronica lui N. Schaedel (sec. XV): text şi ilustraţiePDF
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Ela COSMAEditarea documentelor la Institutul de Istorie „G. Bariţiu” din Cluj-Napoca al Academiei Române. Documentele germanePDF
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Angela RUSŞedinţa de constituire a primului Consiliu Local al Municipiului Cluj-Napoca ales după Decembrie 1989PDF
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Adriana BOGDANAplicaţii multimedia pentru muzee şi expoziţii cu tematică istoricăPDF
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RECENZII
Monahismul ortodox românesc. Istorie, contribuţii şi repertorizare. Vol. I, Istoria monahismului ortodox românesc de la începuturi până în prezent. Lucrare publicată la iniţiativa şi cu binecuvântarea Preafericitului Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul Bisericii Ortodoxe Române, Bucureşti, Editura Basilica a Patriarhiei Române, 2014, 1039 p. (Dumitru Suciu)PDF
Melinda MITU, Sorin MITU, Ungurii despre români: naşterea unei imagini etnice, Iaşi, Edit. Polirom, 419 p. (Andrei Faur)PDF
Vasile Silviu Muntean, Istoricul protopopiatului ortodox român din Sighişoara până în secolul al XIX-lea, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Grinta, 2013, 491 p. (Corina Teodor)PDF
Canonici, profesori şi vicari foranei din Biserica Română Unită (1853-1918). Dicţionar, Mirela Popa-Andrei (coord.), Diana Covaci, Ana Victoria Sima, Mihaela Bedecean, Aurelia Dan, Iosif Marin Balog, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Mega, 2013, 454 p. (Ion Cârja)PDF
Sergiu Soica, Eparhia Greco-Catolică de Oradea şi Securitatea în anul 1948, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Mega, 2014, 343 p. (Silviu-Iulian Sana),PDF
Marton József, A Gyulafehérvári Római Katolikus Egyházmegye a 20. században (Dieceza Romano-Catolică de Alba Iulia în secolul 20), Csíkszereda, Pro-Print Könyvkiadó, 2014, 310 p. (Ludovic Báthory), PDF
NOTE BIBLIOGRAFICE
1. Ioan-Aurel Pop, Ioan Bolovan, Istoria Transilvaniei, Academia Română, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Eikon, 2013, 380 p. (Ion Cârja)PDF
2. Dumitru Suciu,Simbolistica transilvană reflectată în contemporaneitate. Studiu de caz: Clujul, ediţie îngrijită de Maria Ploeşteanu, Tg. Mureş, Editura Veritas, 2014, 161 p. (Mirela Popa-Andrei)PDF
3. Emanuel Copilaş, Incursiuni în istoria politică şi intelectuală a secolului XX, Iaşi, Editura Adenim, 2014, 343 p. (Marcela Sălăgean)PDF
4. Gheorghe Lazăr, Documente privitoare la negustorii din Ţara Românească, I (1656-1688), II (1689-1714), Iaşi, Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, 2013 şi 2014, 431 p., 465 p. (Avram Andea)PDF
5. Radu Ştefan Vergatti, Brâncoveneştii. Sfinţii Martiri Brâncoveni. Culegere de studii, Curtea de Argeş, Editura Arhiepiscopiei Argeşului şi Muscelului, 2014, 248 p. (Avram Andea)PDF
6. Izvoarele Răscoalei lui Horea,, Remus Câmpeanu, Anton E. Dörner, Ladislau Gyémánt, Vasile Lechinţan (ed.), vol. XI, Bucureşti, Editura Academiei Române, 2012, 372 p. (Loránd L. Mádly)PDF
7. Ela Cosma, Reprezentanţele consulare austriece în Moldova, Muntenia şi Serbia (1782-1848), Editura Argonaut – Cluj-Napoca, România, Symphologic Publishing – Gatineau, Canada, 2012, 338 p. + 22 ilustraţii; Ela Cosma, Agenţiile consulare habsburgice şi revoluţiile paşoptiste din Moldova, Muntenia şi Serbia, Editura Argonaut – Cluj-Napoca, România, Symphologic Publishing – Gatineau, Canada, 2013, 440 p. + 2 hărţi (Dumitru Suciu)PDF
8. Loránd Mádly, Între reformă şi egală îndreptăţire: aspecte ale activităţilor politico-naţionale româneşti şi săseşti în deceniul neoabsolutist, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Argonaut, 2014, 320 p. (Iosif Marin Balog)PDF
9. Stefano Santoro, Dall’Impero absurgico alla Grande Romania. Il nazionalismo romeno di Transilvania fra Ottocento e Novecento, Editura Franco Angeli, Milano, 2014, 302 p. (Ion Cârja)PDF
10. Antonio D'Alessandri, Gândirea şi opera Dorei D’Istria între Orientul european şi Italia, traducere din limba italiană de Mara Chiţescu şi Cerasela Barbone, Bucureşti, Editura Pavesiana, 2011, 460 p. (Cecilia Cârja)PDF
11. Septimiu Albini, Societatea „Transilvania”. Amintiri de la „Tribuna” veche. Scrieri politice, Editura Răducu Ruşeţ, Cluj-Napoca, Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, 2014, 161 p. (Iuliu-Marius Morariu)PDF
12. Ute Schmidt, Basarabia. Coloniştii germani de la Marea Neagră, traducere din limba germană de Cristina Grossu-Chiriac, Chişinău, Editura Cartier, 2014, 420 p. (Irina Nastasă-Matei)PDF
13. Zwischen Tauwettersozialismus und Neostalinismus. Deutsche und andere Minderheiten in Ostmittel-und Südoseuropa. 1953-1964, München, IKGS Verlag, 2011, 251 p. (Adrian Gabriel Pop)PDF
14. Lia Pop, Despre Preşedinte în democraţie, Oradea, Editura Universităţii din Oradea, 2014, 397 p. (Marcela Sălăgean)PDF
15. Die Securitate in Siebenbürgen, herausgegeben von Joachim von Puttkamer, Stefan Sienerth, Ulrich A. Wien, Köln, Weimar, Wien, Böhlau Verlag, 2014, 432 p. (Adrian Gabriel Pop)PDF
16. Bücher der Rumäniendeutschen-Rumäniendeutsche Bücher 1990-2014, Reschitza, „Banatul Montan” Verlag, 2014, 315 p. (Adrian Gabriel Pop)PDF
REVISTA REVISTELOR
“Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen”, Unter Aufsicht der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht Verlag, ISSN 0017-1549, 2010, 262. Jahrgang, Heft 1/2; 2010, 262. Jahrgang, Heft 3/4; 2011, 263. Jahrgang, Heft 1/2; 2011, 263. Jahrgang, Heft 3/4; 2012, 264. Jahrgang, Heft 1/2; 2012, 264. Jahrgang, Heft 3/4 (Loránd Mádly)PDF
“The Hungarian Historical Review”, Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, New Series of “Acta Historica”, Budapest, II/ 2013 (1-4); III/2014 (1-4) (Artúr Lakatos)PDF
“Századok”, 147/ 2013 (1-6); 148/2014 (1-6) (Artúr Lakatos)PDF
“Világtörténet”, Budapest, MTA BTK TTI Folyóirata, 35/2013/4; 36/2014/1-4 (Artúr Lakatos)PDF
“Történelmi Szemle”, Budapest, MTA, BTK, TTI Értesitője, LV/ 2013/4; LVI/2014/1-4 (Artúr Lakatos)PDF
VIAŢA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
Cea de a XI-a Reuniune a Comisiei Mixte de Istorie Româno-Slovacă (Nădlac – Arad, 6-9 octombrie 2014) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Cea de-a XXII-a Reuniune a Comisiei Mixte de Istorie Româno-Ungară (Budapesta, 4-6 noiembrie 2014) (Remus Câmpeanu)PDF
„Zilele Academice Clujene” (Cluj-Napoca, 3-8 iunie 2014) (Iosif Marin Balog)PDF
Simpozionul Internaţional „Banatul – Istorie şi multiculturalitate”, Zrenianin, Novi Sad, 11-13 iulie 2014 (Mihaela Bedecean)PDF
Simpozionul „Centenar Academician Ştefan Pascu. 1914-2014” (Cluj-Napoca, 14 octombrie 2014) (Susana Andea)PDF
Simpozionul internaţional „Şcoala Ardeleană”, Oradea, 29-31 octombrie 2014 (Mihaela Bedecean)PDF
Simpozionul „Spre România Mare. Integrarea Transilvaniei în Regatul României”, Bistriţa, 5 decembrie 2014 (Victor Vizauer)PDF
Manifestări ştiinţifice organizate de Institutul de Istorie „G. Bariţiu” în anul 2014 (Departamentul ISTORIE)PDF
Activităţile Şcolii Doctorale – SCOSAAR – Filiala Cluj-Napoca. ISTORIE în anul 2014PDF
IN MEMORIAM
Camil Bujor Mureşanu (1927-2015) (Redacţia)PDF


Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Victor V. VIZAUER « Back
The Role of Onomastics in Researching the History of Transylvania in the Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries. Case Study: Ethno-toponyms

Through this study I have managed to analyze a number of place names containing references to the ethnicity of the Populations who lived in that Settlement’s. The Ethnotoponym’s under investigation have been extracted from Documents issued in the 12-13th centuries, which take into account the approximate geographic area of Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş. Along with the Toponymic and Documentary sources, in my approach I used data from Chronicles, as well as information from archaeological researches. In this article it can be seen very clearly the importance of the auxiliary sciences of history – in this case Onomastic Science – for a more profound knowledge of the existing realities in the Middle Ages in this geographical and cultural area.
Keywords: Transylvania, Toponymy, Ethnicity, Medieval Archaeology, Documents

Robert-Marius MIHALACHE « Back
Historical and Economic Issues of the Transylvanian Diocese Reflected in Tithes Registers (1332-1337)

Nous désirons utiliser dans cet article (Aspectele istorico-economice ale episcopiei Transilvaniei reflectate de registrul de dijme – 1332-1337; Les Aspects Historico-économiques de l’Épiscopat de Transylvanie, reflétés par le registre des dîmes) six années (1332-1337) des sources éditées de registres des dîmes, faites par les personnes envoyées par le pape Jean XXII, les collecteurs Jacobus Berengarii et Raimundus de Bonofato. Nous allons étudier les aspects historico-économiques de ces registres pour deux motifs: 1. on n’a jamais analysé ces sources d’un point de vue qui puisse présenter les raisons primordiales pour lesquelles ont été faîtes – leur côté économique; 2. parce que ce registre est beaucoup plus complexe d’un point de vue structurel et de composition que ne sont le autres registres faites par les autres collecteurs qui ont travaillé dans le royaume de la Hongrie avant 1331. Par les données présentées nous avons essayé de réaliser une radiographie complète regardant les sommes payées sous la forme des dîmes par les clercs des archidiacres de l’Épiscopat de Transylvanie vers la Chambre Apostolique pendant la période 1332-1336, donc 5 années. Nous avons pu identifier les sommes dans la plupart des cas, mais à cause des lacunes des textes, cette identification des dîmes a été possible seulement dans une proportion de 90,25%. Et si nous considérons la somme payée par le diocésain de Transylvanie dans cette période, sans les 1170 marks payés par l’évêque local, la possibilité d’identification des sommes diminue á 73%. La somme totale marquée comme collectée sous la forme des dîmes dans de cette période de 5 années dans la Transylvanie est de 1831,5 marks, qui équivalent à 449,7 kg argent (métal). Cette somme reflète la puissance économique de diocèse qui se trouve sur les bords de Societas Christiana. Le pouvoir économique de cette diocèse transylvain, qui s’élevait à 1831,5 marks (449,7 kg), représente 19,5% de la somme totale collectée soul la forme des dîmes pendant la IVe décennie du XIVe siècle dans le royaume de la Hongrie (cette somme étant: 9385 marks, représentant la valu de 2304,3 kg – 2,3 tonnes – d’argent métal). Mais la 1/3 de la somme totale était la revenue du roi Charles Robert de Hongrie (d’Anjou), donc environ 3130 marks type « poids de Buda » (768 kg argent métal), mais le reste de 2/3 a été envoyé á la Chambre Pontificale d’Avignon (1536 kg / 1,53 tonnes d’argent métal).
Mots-clés: diocèse, Transylvanie, collecteurs, dîmes, archidiacre, paroisse, marks d’argent

Avram ANDEA « Back
Between literacy and cursus honorum: Ştefan Raţ (cca 1670-†1720)

This paper targets an analysis of the role the literate education played in the social ascension of a certain Transylvanian chancery scribe, namely Ştefan Raţ (cca.1660-1720). He turned from copyist in the princely chancery to administrator of an estate, and in the end to a member of the nobility. This social evolution was supported by his literate education, by the skills he acquired in the school and during the time he worked for the administration of the fiscal estates of Alba Iulia and Zlatna. He also developed and made a very good use of his high sense of establishing relations of political and religious nature. Everything was rounded out by his natural diplomatic skills, which brought him the supreme accomplishment, his social elevation into the noble class.
Keywords: Literacy, scribe (litteratus), estate administrator (provisor), cursus honorum, nobility.

Ioan LUMPERDEAN « Back
History of the Regional Economy: the Diagnosis and Research Methodology

The study aims to analyze main concepts related to regional economic history in terms of conceptual, methodological and analytical. The author explains how has been shaped and defined over time a number of concepts such as region, regionalism, regionalist, regionalization and its connected semantic groups: administrative region, economic area, industrial area, agricultural area, urban area, development region, the developed region, underdeveloped region, tourist region, ethnographic region, regional economy, regional geography etc. The second part of the study relates to the concept of regional economic history; the author’s conclusion is that the history of the regional economy is an economic territorial reality, as well as, a component of historical and economic sciences, which reconstructs this spatial reality, natural or anthropogenic constituted. In terms of research methodology of regional economy, the author proposes an analytical structure which in his view, should include at least the following: regional geographical and economic configuration; reconstruction of the economic potential of the region, in a period or other; identifying natural resources, human and material; estimation of demographic potential of the region; focusing research on sectorial economic history; continuity versus discontinuity regional economic; capturing regional aspects of everyday life; the connection between economic power and regional realities; relationship between rural and urban economy at regional level.
Keywords: region, regionalism, regional economy, history of regional economy, methodology of regional research.

Ciprian GLĂVAN « Back
Revolution of 1848-1849 in the Mirror of German Language Press in Banat

Dieser Artikel behandelt die Ereignisse der Revolution von 1848- 1849 im Banat und ihre Spiegelung in der deutschsprachigen Presse dieser Provinz. Zu dieser Zeit wurden in Temeswar drei periodische Publikationen veröffentlicht: das „Temesvarer Wochenblatt”, das schon seit längerer Zeit erschien und die 1848 gegründeten und zur selben Zeit erschienenen Zeitungen „Tagesanzeiger” und „Der Südungar”. Bis am Anfang der neoabsolutistischen Periode erschienen alle regelmäßigen periodischen Publikationen aus dem Banat, ausschließlich in Temeswar und nur in deutscher Sprache. Am Anfang hatten alle drei Zeitungen eine günstige Einstellung gegenüber der Revolution. Während des Monats Oktober 1848 mussten aber der „Tagesanzeiger” und „Der Südungar” ihre Erscheinung einstellen, während das „Temesvarer Wochenblatt” eine gegenrevolutionäre Stellung ab diesen Moment einnahm. Das „Temesvarer Wochenblatt” wurde noch bis Juni 1849 herausgegeben, als es wegen der Belagerung Temeswars durch die ungarische revolutionäre Armee seine Erscheinung einstellen musste.
Keywords: deutschsprachige, Presse, 1848-1849, Banat, Temeswar, Belagerung.

Aurel RĂDUŢIU « Back
Nicolae Nicolae Sentivani in the Romanian Revolution of 1848

The study introduces to the reader the biography of a less known, but significant personality among the 19th century Transylvanian Romanians living in the Saxon seat of Orăştie (Mühlbach). Nicolae Sentivani (1796-1856), the author’s ancestor, was the Greek-Catholic priest in Turdaş, then, after his first wife’s death, he remarried, leaving priesterhood, and became the village notary. During the years of the revolution, between May 1848 and the summer of 1849, Nicolae Sentivani involved himself in the organization and struggles of the Romanian revolutionary forces, taking over both the administration and the military control over the Orăştie seat. Historical documents testify his great capacity in working out programmatic acts and grievances of the local Romanian population, as well as his special abilities as a military commander, namely as a tribune (since January 1849) and prefect (since April 1849) at the head of the Romanian legion organized in the Sebeş prefecture. After the revolution, together with other great Romanian revolutionaries from Transylvania, Nicolae Sentivani was decorated by Austrian emperor Franz Joseph, on 16 October 1852 personally receiving for his merits the St. Ann Cross 3d class. Aurel Răduţiu’s study depicts an unknown biographical portrait of a Transylvanian Romanian fourty-eighter, shaping a chapter of local history from Turdaş. Moreover, from now on historiography has to reconsider the multiple roles, as a priest, notary, military leader and national militant, played by this interesting personality, Nicolae Sentivani, including him in the gallery of the forerunners of the Romanian national movement in Transylvania in the first half of the 19th century.
Keywords: biography of Nicolae Sentivani (1796-1856), 1848 revolution, Transylvania, 1848 Romanian tribunes and prefects.

Ioan COZMA « Back
Orthodox Theological and Religious Literature in Transylvania. Printed and Circulating Books (1867-1918)

The present study highlights the report between religion and society and timidly attempts to make the step towards modernity at the Transylvanian Romanians in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, aspects concerning the organization of church life, monastic spirituality, ritual, sacred art (architecture, painting, iconography). The Romanian churches were permanently confronted, during the period 1867-1918, with the tendencies of the Hungarian governments to limit their ecclesiastic autonomy and to meddle ever more often in church, foundations and administrative problems of the religious institutions. Eloquent examples are the Trefort Law and the Apponyi Law, the legislation meant to create “the cultural zone” and many more.
Keywords: Orthodox monastic and church life, Cult, Religious Items, Garments

Róbert Nagy « Back
Place and weight of Jiu Valley in the Economy of Dual Monarchy 1880-1918

Beginning with the 80th of the 19th century, in the coal mining region of the Jiu Valley began a rash development. As a result of this process, the region became the most important coal-field of the Hungarian part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The place occupied and the role played in the economy of the dualist state deserve a carefully analysis of the data’s. Comparing the production results in this period reported by the different companies shows a step by step growing of this valley, until it occupied the first place between the largest coal-producing regions of the Hungarian Kingdom. A relevant example is the Jiu Valley-subsidiary of the Salgótarján Coal- Mining Company, which in 1912 already realized a higher production than the parent establishment in the Salgótarján region.
Keywords: coal-mining, Transylvania, Jiu Valley, production, regional economy, industrialization.

Mihaela GRANCEA « Back
Between Passive and Active Anti-Semitism. From the Greek-Catholic Publications Concerning the Solution of the “Jewish Problem” in Europe and Romania

Most post-communist studies regarding the Greek-Catholic (United) Church in Transylvania and Banat mainly focus on two major research topics, directly relating to the identity and historical legitimacy of the Greek-Catholic belief/cult: the Unification with the Church of Rome and the martyrdom and anti-communist resistance. Other, more recent studies analyze the Church’s important role in the process of political and cultural emancipation of the Romanian nation in Transylvania and Banat during the 18th and 19th centuries, and the relationship between the Church, the Holy See and European Catholicism. Thus, our study cannot benefit from an extensive bibliography This paper will analyze the official discourse of the United Church, particularly as it was recorded in religious press from Transylvania and Banat (see esp. the newspaper “Unirea” (The Union) and the magazine Cultura Creştină (Christian Culture). Tracking the latter discourse has not been an easy undertaking, mainly due to the fact that the dissolution of the Greek-Catholic Church (1948) had also affected the documentary background of this Church in Romania.
Keywords: Church, anti-Semitism, press, ideology, discourse.

Lucio VALENT « Back
An Anglican church in Bucharest. The British Anglican Church in Bucharest and the Foreign Office Strategy towards Romania

This study explores – through British documents – the case of the restoration of the building which housed the Church and the Anglican community in Bucharest in 1950s. At the end of the Second World War, having understood that no free political activities would have been permitted by the new local government, London concluded that a cautious but concrete propaganda activity was the appropriate response to the new situation in the country. In this context, the Anglican Church of Bucharest was deemed as a valuable stronghold, prompting the British Foreign Office to support the refurbishment works of the building. The edifice allowed religious worship activities in a country where the state was committed to reduce the local society’s way of life to dictatorial standards. In other words, thanks to the Anglican Church, the Foreign Office thought that the Romanians would remember the existence of democratic values different from those advocated by the Communists.
Keywords: United Kingdom, Romania, Anglican Church, Propaganda, Communism.

Irina NASTASA-MATEI, « Back
The Channels of Student Migration toward Nazi Germany

This article aims to provide some benchmarks regarding the pathways by which the young Romanians went to study in Nazi Germany. One of the objectives of our study is understanding the dynamics of the Romanian-German relations during the 1930s and how these relations influenced the student and academic exchanges between the two countries. We noted the evolution from small, short-term student exchanges, usually summer schools with obvious political and ideological character, organized by the Nazi authorities in collaboration with Christian student associations and the Legionary Movement, to institutionalized, long-term student exchanges, involving consistent financial resources and having a stronger impact on Romania’s approachment to Nazi Germany, but having a less obvious – although much more efficient – political and ideological component. Most of the Romanian young people studying in Germany during 1933-1944 did so by their own means, being supported financially mostly by their family, and probably benefiting, after 1935, from the currency benefits provided by the German state. Romanian institutions offered only a very reduced amount of scholarships, and their awarding was controversial. The Germans had a very well established system of scholarships for foreign students and the Romanian youth could receive German stipends, however not without making ideological concessions.
Keywords: student migration; academic exchanges; scholarships; Romania; Nazi Germany.

Katalin OANŢĂ « Back
The Situation of Education in Hungarian Language under the Regime of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej

The working paper focuses on the issue of education in Hungarian language in Romania, during the communist leadership, more specifically during Gheorghiu-Dej era. The period analyzed is one of a great importance from the perspective of decisions taken by the Romanian communist leadership in the field of education in the mother tongue, in general, in Hungarian, in particular. It is essential to know the reasons and mechanisms behind the measures adopted, especially during the end of the sixtieth and the beginning of the seventieth decades of the previous century, in order to better understand the background of some of the requests constantly expressed by the Hungarian minority living in Romania after 1989, which are supported by Hungary, as its kin-State, such as the reestablishment of a Hungarian university in our country.
Keywords: Hungarian minority, education in mother tongue, Romanian-Hungarian relations, communism, the 1956 Revolution, nationalism.

Adi DOHOTARU « Back
Portraits of Young Socialists: Moral Standing and Socializing Places

The legend of the dissident intellectual surrounds the Romanian socialists of the last quarter of the 19th century. Young men called “nihilists” would break all social taboos, would protest against the legitimacy of the era’s corrupt political institutions, and would dispute religious ethics, the monarchy’s hierarchical authority, social inequality and the claimed reputation of the university. In various socialists’ or former socialists’ memoirs, they are deemed new social apostles, with the coming of the Hereafter replaced by the imminent occurrence of the revolution, which, by the collective approach of resources, will set in motion a more harmonious and equalitarian society. Unlike the restrictive bourgeois ethics, their (self) description is romantic and legendary. The attempt in this study is to create a generic portrait of the socialist intellectual toward the end of the 19th century, focusing on his/her exterior and moral standing, but also on the specifically socializing places of the socialists.
Keywords: Socialism, Romania, intellectual, 19th century, popular education, cafe, club, clothing.

Lónhárt TAMÁS « Back
Between Political Integration Efforts and Intellectual Resistance. Strategies of Hungarian Intellectual elite of Romania (1968-1989)

One can observe as studying the political and intellectual debate on representing the Hungarian national minority in the Romanian state, that already in the interwar period there had been the elements of a plural debate, several models, different perspectives and political agendas entering the public scenery, which was still trying to survive in the times of the establishment of the Communist regime. After the consolidation of the new regime, the political realities, the economic and social transformations, the opportunities and restrictive dimensions as well, all had been the results of the political inputs of a single party-state, aiming the entire society as a whole. The first part of the present study is dedicated to the specific way of political integrating of the Hungarian etno-cultural community in the Romanian state, after 1944 and up to 1960’s, a period of time that was marked also by accumulating specific experiences, that defined the Hungarian elites’ perspective upon the community’s vital interest. The second part is dedicated to the defining moment of 1968 and its impact upon the Hungarian intellectuals’ own perspective over the realities they had to meet by their public agenda. The third part is an analysis of the two different pannels of interaction between the Romanian socialist state and the Hungarian intellectuals who tried to present the options and outcries of their community in the years between 1969- 1989: on one hand, it was aimed to influence the political regime’s decision making centre through the acting of Hungarian personalities integrated in those cadres of the regime; on the other hand, one have to address also the protest groups, the phenomena of intellectual resistance, expressed also in the samizdat publications edited in Romania between 1982-1989, in Hungarian language. The above mentioned pannels of interaction had influenced also the perspective of the immediate post-1989 elites upon the solutions for the problem of integrating the Hungarian minority in the new Romanian political reality.
Keywords: Communism, political regim, national minorities, cultural reproduction, intellectuals, representation, political integration, collaboration, cooperation, protest, intellectual resistance, samizdat, political transition.

Flaviu Vasile RUS « Back
Spain – a History between Monarchy and Republican Goal

Spain represents today a milestone within the European Union. Nevertheless the political systems experienced by this country over the centuries may provide a clear response to the present challenges of the spanish society. Events from the contemporary years and recent tensions have revived the ancien question: “republic or the monarchy?”
Keywords: Republic, Monarchy, Europe, Spain, Culture.

Elena-Steluţa DINU « Back
Romanian-Russian Relations during of Neutrality (July 21/August 3, 1914 – August 14/27 1916)

The issue of international relations is one of current and interest for European historiography as interest is based on the need to know the links between states. Similarly the relations between Romania and Russia were based on natural necessity of the existence of such a link. Through this summary we intend to convey a more objective and realistic view on the political and diplomatic relations between Romania and Russia during the 1914-1916 neutrality. Following Crown Council in Sinaia of 21 July / August 3, 1914 Romania adopted the formula of transitory neutrality, that of expectation. With this temporary neutrality Romania made the plunge to its separation from the alliance with the Central Powers, which marked its foreign policy orientation for three decades. Entente, especially Russia, were concerned to remove Romania from the influence of Berlin. For political and military reasons, Romanian diplomacy sought to get closer to Russia since the years before the First World War. Romanian Government was the one that opened the series of Romanian- Russian diplomatic contacts embodied in signing the secret Convention between Romania and Russian of 18 September / 1 October 1914 as well as of the political treaty and diplomatic convention in August 1916 between Romania and the Entente.
Keywords: neutrality, Romania, Russia, First World War, The Entente, International relations.

Şerban TURCUŞ « Back
Profound Dissatisfaction of Cluj Hungarian Intellectuals against Vienna Dictate. A diplomatic note of 1941

The study is based on an unpublished document of the Italian diplomacy from 1941 and it refers to an information emanating from the Italian Consulate in Timişoara. The document enlightens the atmosphere in Cluj almost a year after the Second Vienna Award. The document highlights the profound dissatisfaction of the Hungarian intellectuals from Cluj towards the authorities in Budapest and the desire of the Hungarian ethnic citizens from Cluj to return to Romania by referendum. It is said that when Northern Transylvania became part of Hungary the quality of life decreased significantly and that it was much better during the Romanian administration. The document surprised by its originality especially that coming from one of the authors of the Second Vienna Award.
Keywords: Romania, Hungarians, Cluj, Italy, diplomacy, Second Vienna Award.

Veronica TURCUŞ « Back
Methodological Limits of Memoirs. A Diplomatic Report about the Alleged Project of King Mihai’s Departure in Southern Italy

This study refers to the secret project of King Michael's departure, starting in place by the vice president of the Council of Ministers and Foreign Minister of Romania, Mihai Antonescu. The project was developed in the spring of 1944 and involved in the initial phase Renato Bova-Scoppa, Minister of Italy in Bucharest. The Italian Minister tells very little about the project in his memoirs Colloqui con due Dittatori, while in the document here published are more extensive references. The project was eventually abandoned, but it shows which would have been one of the ways that the monarchy would follow if Russia invaded Romania.
Keywords: Romania, Italy, World War II, King Michael of Romania, Mihai Antonescu

Alexandru Ioan HELTIANU « Back
An Episode of the the Staff Policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs under the Leadership of Ana Pauker: Appointment of the Head of Mission to Rome in 1949

This study is focused on a topic that is less present in the Romanian historiography in recent years, more specifically the history of diplomacy under the communist regime. On the basis of a documentation made in the archives of the Foreign Ministry in Rome, here, is tackled the appointment of Mihail Dragomirescu in 1949 as the Romanian Chief of Mission in Italy. The diplomatic correspondence points out the poor professional quality that the Romanian diplomat had, his contribution to the strengthening of the communist power in Romania and also the way in which Anna Pauker, the Foreign Affair minister in Romania, is rewarding employees without any diplomatic accomplishments but with lots of failures by appointing them in key positions.
Keywords: Romania, diplomacy, Italy, communist power, Anna Pauker

Susana ANDEA « Back
Some Considerations Regarding to the Practice of Falsification of Acts in Transylvania (13th-17th Century)

Forgery of charters was strictly related to the phenomenon of writing and to the increasing value of the written document in the society. Medieval forgeries were usually fabricated within various institutions of the church, the normal environment that made use of literacy in the middle ages. In Transylvania, as well as all over Europe, not authentic acts had as purpose obtaining, enlarging and preserving unlawful rights and benefits. Researches regarding the internal structure of those documents issued mainly in the earlier medieval period demonstrate that a higher concentration of falsified acts is to be found in the 13th Century (11% of the entire surviving documents). Afterwards, this percentage paradoxically decreases to 4% or even to 1% for the following centuries. Regarding the later stage of development of the literacy in Transylvania, the Principality (16th-17th Centuries), it has to be stressed upon an obvious lack of appropriate research. A certain development of literacy in Transylvania in the latter period was followed by a wider use of various forms of counterfeit legal texts, which reached even the lower levels of society, a phenomenon that can be described as a “vulgarization” of the fabrication of official documents.
Keywords: Transylvania, forgery of official documents, critical analysis of medieval and early modern documents.

Zita HAIDUC « Back
Romanian Countries in the Chronicle of N. Schaedel (15th Century): text and illustration

Liber Chronicarum is a true encyclopaedia that includes history, philology, geography, hagiography and martyrology, ecumenical councils, religious sects and orders, biographies of those who distinguished themselves on the stage of history since the beginning of the world until the times when the book was completed. For most towns, lands, or characters – either biblical or historical – a limited number of templates was employed (645 woodcut blocks for 1809 images), consequently each block was reproduced several times. An instance of pattern employment was the repetition of the same image used to represent Hungary, Wallachia, Prussia and Saxony at a few pages distance in the text taken form pope Pius II’s work, Aeneas Silvius in Europam, Memmingen, 1440. In the 23 rows of the text accompanying the picture called “Walachia” there are several pieces of information on the geographical position of the country and her neighbors, and it is stated that the language spoken by the “Vlachs” has Latin roots and it underwent changes. Updating the information, the text mentions that there are two rival parties in Wallachia, “Dăneştii” and “Drăculeştii”, that their enmity has nefarious consequences within the context of the struggle against the Turks, as well as the part played by Iancu of Hunedoara in the victories gained in this struggle. The latter is also mentioned when Hungary is described, particularly in the part on Transylvania, which the text notes that was once inhabited by Dacians; Iancu of Hunedoara’s Romanian origin, his valiance and his many battles against the Turks are mentioned here.
Keywords: Hartmann Schedel, illustrated chronicle, Wallachia, woodcut

Ela COSMA « Back
Editing of Historical Documents at the “George Bariţiu” Institute of History of the Romanian Academy in Cluj-Napoca. German documents

The main task assumed by tradition by the „George Bariţiu” Institute of History in Cluj-Napoca is processing and editing documents of medieval, premodern, modern and contemporary history. Our institution carries on 5 of the total 7 document collections being actually published today under the aegis of the Romanian Academy: 1. Documenta Romaniae Historica. Series C. Transylvania (vol. XVII, 1386-1390); 2. The Fiscal Conscription of Transylvania from 1750 (vol. VII); 3. The Sources of Horea’s Uprising, in 2 series: A. Diplomataria (vol. XII) and B. Narrative Sources; 4. Documents of the 1848 Revolution in the Romanian Lands. C. Transylvania (vol. XI, 6-31 July 1848); 5. The National Movement of the Transylvanian Romanians, 1849-1918 (vol. VII/1, 16 July 1863 - 19 November 1865). Methodological precision is a priority of our work, as these collections edit Romanian, Latin, Hungarian and German language documents, while the latter represent 30-40% of the last 2 collections mentioned. After a brief review of the methodological preoccupations unfolded since 1961 in order to create a coherent, unitary system of norms regarding document transcription and publishing, the study analyses the most important steps and issues observed in this process.
Keywords: editing historical documents, German documents, documents collections, methodological norms, „George Bariţiu” Institute of History in Cluj-Napoca.

Angela RUS « Back
Session of Establishment the First Local Council in Cluj-Napoca after December 1989

Les premières élections locales en Roumanie post-communiste ont eu lieu en Février 1992. Gagnant à Cluj-Napoca a été un parti nationaliste, PUNR, qui a obtenu, en plus de la Mairie, le plus grand nombre de sièges au Conseil municipal. La réunion inaugurale du nouveau Conseil a eu lieu le 14 Mars dans un état de tension constant.
Keywords: élections locales; Mairie; réunion inaugurale; serment;

Adriana BOGDAN « Back
Multimedia Applications for Museums and Historical Exhibitions

The hereby article focuses on several multimedia applications available to visitors of museums and exhibitions of historical topics. For physical visits there are several applications running on audio devices, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), tablets, Google Glass intelligent glasses, info kiosks. The holograms accurately reproduce the originals and/or make possible their thorough visualization, on layers. The multi- and hyperspectral scanning offers adjacent patrimony information, detected outside the visible specter. In the case of the virtual exhibitions there are the photo/video galleries, the panoramic images and the virtual tours. The 3D visualization of the patrimony is displayed on the computer, with possibilities of studying it from any angle/position, actually possible by laser scanning, by structured light or by photogrammetry, as well as the option of physically reproducing the objects by a 3D printing device. Virtual reality is also mentioned, an option by which, based on the information already preserved, it is possible to reconstruct on the computer an image close to the original of the artifacts and of historical sites decayed or destroyed. The article mentions as well the efforts of conceiving a unitary European and worldwide framework for the 3D technologies in the patrimonial field.
Keywords: audioguid, PDA, tablet, Google Glass, infokiosk, hologram, on-line exhibition, panoramic image, virtual tour.

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