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INSTITUTUL "G. BARIŢIU"

Cuprinsul ANUARULUI Nr. LIII din 2014



ISTORIA MECANISMELOR DEMOCRATICE
Ovidiu IACOBReformele religioase ale lui Alexandru Ioan CuzaPDF
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Vlad POPOVICIThe Electoral Process in the Banat (1861–1918). Statistics. Evolution. ProsopographyPDF
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Angela RUSConsideraţii privind adoptarea primelor reglementări cu caracter electoral din România postcomunistă. 1990-1996PDF
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Claudiu MARIANContextul istorico-politic italian în anii 1992-1993PDF
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EDUCAŢIE ŞI ELITE
Andrei Florin SORAAvatarurile unei instituţii de învăţământ particular: Şcoala Superioară de Ştiinţe de Stat, 1871-1948PDF
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Irina NASTASĂ-MATEIRelaţiile culturale româno-germane în perioada 1933-1944. Acordurile culturalePDF
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Vasile PUȘCAȘPhilip E. Mosely şi Şcoala sociologică a lui Dimitrie GustiPDF
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Matei GHEBOIANUThe functioning of entry requirements to Romanian higher education. Case study: history studies (1948-1989)PDF
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Valentin MAIEREvoluţia instituţiilor muzicale de învăţământ superior din timpul regimului comunistPDF
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ISTORIE ŞI ECONOMIE
Iosif Marin BALOGEfectele socio-economice ale mineritului în „patrulaterul aurifer” al Apusenilor în perioada 1850-1914PDF
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Róbert NAGYIndustrializare şi dezvoltare regională în Valea Jiului în perioada 1867-1918PDF
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Marius BORZANPăşunile comunale din Sălaj în legea de reformă agrară din 1921PDF
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CULTURĂ, ISTORIE ŞI IDEOLOGIE
Susana ANDEAActul scris şi valoarea lui probatorie în practica judiciară din Transilvania (sec. XIII-XIV)PDF
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Avram ANDEAScripte şi dieci pe domeniile Făgăraş şi Gurghiu în secolul al XVII-leaPDF
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Kurt SCHARRFondul religionar greco-oriental din Bucovina – bătălie culturală şi construct naţional în oglinda unei instituţiiPDF
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ISTORIE MILITARĂ ŞI DIPLOMAŢIE
Tatiana ONILOVArmata operativă ţaristă de intervenţie în Imperiul Austriac şi în Transilvania la 1849PDF
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Cosmin Ştefan DOGARULe projet du prince étranger. L’avènement de Charles de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen au trône de Roumanie en 1866PDF
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Flavius SOLOMONÎn căutarea unei dinastii sau a unei republici. România în proiecţiile postbelice ale Puterilor Centrale şi ale Rusiei sovieticePDF
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ISTORIA SERVICIILOR SECRETE
Veronica TURCUŞ, Alexandru Ioan HELTIANUUn caz inedit de spionaj românesc în Italia (1955-1957): Teodor Verche, ataşatul de presă de la Ambasada României pe lângă QuirinalePDF
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Veronica TURCUŞ, Şerban TURCUŞContribuţii diplomatice la biografia lui Ion Mihai Pacepa: prima tentativă de acreditarePDF
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DOCUMENTAR
Margareta ASLAN„Kirk Vezir” în corespondențele orientaliștilor Vámbéry Ármin și Goldziher IgnáczPDF
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Claudia DĂRĂBANConsideraţii demografice asupra armenilor din Gherla în perioada interbelicăPDF
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Lucian NASTASĂO comemorare disputată. Asasinarea lui Nicolae Iorga şi mediul universitarPDF
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MISCELLANEA
Adriana BOGDANIstoria prin aplicaţii multimediaPDF
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RECENZII
Barbu Ştefănescu, Între pâini Cluj-Napoca, Editura Academiei Române, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, 2012, 645 p. (Andrei Faur)PDF
Ana Victoria Sima, Affirming Identity. The Romanian Greek-Catholic Church at the Time of the First Vatican Council, Milano, Vita e Pensiero, 2013, 442 p. (Nicolae Bocşan)PDF
Marele Război în memoria bănăţeană (1914-1919), vol. I: antologie, ediţie, studii şi note de Valeriu Leu şi Nicolae Bocşan, colaboratori: Mihaela Bedecean şi Ionela Moscovici, Cluj-Napoca, Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2012; vol. II: Memoriile lui Pavel Jumanca, antologie, ediţie, studii şi note de Valeriu Leu, Nicolae Bocşan, Mihaela Bedecean, colaborator: Ionela Moscovici, Cluj-Napoca, Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2013 (Ion Cârja)PDF
NOTE BIBLIOGRAFICE
1. Petre Beşliu Munteanu, Hermannstädter Spital und Spitalkirche, 13.-18. Jh./Spitalul şi Biserica spitalului din Sibiu, secolele XIIIXVIII. , Hermannstadt/Sibiu, ”Honterus”, 2012, 292 pag. + ilustr. (Lidia Gross)PDF
2. Franz Zimmermann,Zeitbuch. Autobiographische Aufzeichnungen eines Hermannstädter Archivars (1875-1925), ediert von Harald Zimmermann, Böhlau Verlag, Köln, Weimar, Wien, 2013, 262 p. (Schriften zur Landeskunde Siebenbürgen, Bd. 34) (Lidia Gross)PDF
3. Arhim.Veniamin Micle, „Bolniţa Bistriţei” Mănăstire isihastă – Secolul al XIV-lea, Sfânta Mănăstire Bistriţa, Eparhia Râmnicului, 2012, 271 p. (Pr. Gh. Naghi)PDF
4. Ana Dumitran, Hegedűs Enikő, Vasile Rus, ecioarele înlăcrimate ale Transilvaniei. Preliminarii la o istorie ilustrată a toleranţei religioase, Alba Iulia, Editura Altip, 2011, 422 p. (Pr. Gh. Naghi)PDF
5. Verena Winiwarter, Martin Knoll, Umweltgeschichte, Verlag Böhlau Köln-Weimar-Wien 2007, UTB-Reihe Nr. 2521, 368 p. (Lorand Madly)PDF
6. Episcop Lucian Mic, Bisericii Ortodoxe Române din Banat cu Biserica Ortodoxă Sârbă în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea,, Presa Universitară Clujeană-Editura Episcopiei Caransebeşului, 2013, 403 p. + 5 planşe. (Pr. Gh. Naghi)PDF
7. Sergiu Soica, „Nicolae Brînzeu şi dosarul din Arhiva CNSAS. Povestea unui eroism discret”, Târgul Lăpuş, Editura Galaxia Gutenberg, 2013, 408 pagini (Claudia Daraban)PDF
8. Ioan Boroş, Memorialistica, Studiu introductiv, ediţie şi note de Nicolae Bocşan, Valeriu Leu, Ion Cârja, Costin Feneşan, Cristian Sabău, Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2012, 375 p. (Pr. Gh. Naghi)PDF
9. Bogdan Briscu, Moţii şi luptele lor la 1848-1849, Cu anexe (biografii, glosar, bibliografie, indici). Ediţie îngrijită şi glosar: Ela Cosma, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Argonaut, 2012, 300 p. (Ela Cosma)PDF
10. Enache Tuşa, Imaginar politic şi identităţi colective în Dobrogea, Bucureşti, Editura Institutului de Ştiinţe Politice şi Relaţii Internaţionale, 2011, 522 p. (Vlad Popovici)PDF
11. Asasinările în masă din RASSM în perioada Marii Terori. Documentele desecretizate din Arhivele MAI şi SIS ale Republicii Moldova, Editori: Ion Varta, Tatiana Varta, Igor Şarov, Chişinău, Editura Cartdidact, 2010, 710 p. (Varga Levente)PDF
12. Igor Caşu, Igor Şarov (editori), Republica Moldova. De la Perestroikă la Independenţă 1989-1991, Chişinău, Editura Cartdidact, 2011, 637 p. (Varga Levente)PDF
13. Dietrich Eichholtz, Deutsche Ölpolitik im Zeitalter der Weltkriege. Studien und Dokumente, unter Mitarbeit von Titus Kockel, Leipzig, Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2010, 586 p. (Ottmar Traşcă)PDF
14. Marcela Sălăgean, Introducere în istoria contemporană a României, , Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, 2013, 200 p. (Mihai Croitor)PDF
15. Victor Neumann şi Armin Heinen (Editor), Key-Concepts of Romanian History. Alternative Approaches to Socio-Political Languages, Budapesta-New York, CEU Press, 2013 (Cristian Roiban)PDF
16. Grigore Ploeşteanu, Sentimentul istoriei,, Studii, articole, note, interviuri. Ediţie îngrijită de Mariana Ploeşteanu, refaţă de Valentin Marica, Editura Veritas, Târgu- Mureş, 2011, 591 p. (Pr. Gh. Naghi)PDF
17. Zoltan Györke, Prefectura judeţului Cluj (1923-1938), Cluj-Napoca, Editura Mega, 2013, 257 p. (Bianca Felseghi)PDF
18. Csucuja István, Sokarcú örökség. Tanulmányok, laudációk, gyászbeszédek (traducere în limba română: Multipla moştenire. Studii, laudaţiuni, discursuri funerare), Kolozsvár, Kriterion Könyvkiadó, 2012, 228 p. (Ludovic Báthory)PDF
19. Volker Wollmann, Patrimoniu preindustrial şi industrial în România, vol. II, 2011, 390 p; vol. III, 2012, 436 p., Sibiu-Hermannstadt, Editura Honterus Verlag (Ludovic Báthory)PDF
REVISTA REVISTELOR
„Archiva Moldaviae”, Iaşi, II (2010), 465 p; III (2011), 476 p.; IV (2012), 545 p. (Ottmar Traşcă)PDF
„Annales historici Presovienses”, vol. 8/2008, 9/2009, 10/2010 ISSN 1336-7528 (Radu Mârza)PDF
VIAŢA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
Manifestări ştiinţifice organizate de Institutul de Istorie „George Bariţiu” în anul 2013PDF
Activităţile Şcolii Doctorale – SCOSAAR – Filiala Cluj-Napoca. ISTORIE în anul 2013PDF
CENTENAR
Ştefan PASCU (1914-1998) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Ileana BOZAC (1914-2000) (Lucia Pavel)PDF


Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Ovidiu IACOB « Back
Reformele religioase ale lui Alexandru Ioan Cuza

Vodă Cuza’s religious reforms, even if they were in the canons limits, they had the effect of engaging the Orthodox Church in an accelerated transforming process, but in a secularizing and a disciplining process as well. In seven years of reign, Vodă Cuza realized in the Orthodox Church what others did not realise in hundreds of years; he had „a great religious policy”, inevitably reforming the church, who was lagging in terms of correlation with the mid XIXth century Romanian society needs.
Keywords: Al.I. Cuza, religious reforms, canon, orthodoxy.

Vlad POPOVICI « Back
The Electoral Process in the Banat (1861–1918). Statistics. Evolution. Prosopography

The paper offers an overview on the electoral process in the Banat between 1861 and 1918, by analyzing the statistical evolution of the results and the composition of the province’s parliamentary elite. The highly mixed ethnic and confessional structure, together with the low level of economic development made this particular geographical area suitable for electoral frauds, gradually transforming it into a traditional election ground for the deputies of the government party, regardless nationality. It is not by chance that one third of the Hungarian prime ministers, along with other members of their cabinets and close relatives, won some of their parliamentary seats in the Banat. Regarding the body of representatives sent into the Hungarian Parliament, while a large majority (ca. 50%) were only elected once, resuming afterwards their bureaucratic careers, there were also prominent local personalities who held their seats for decades. Overall, the mixture between nationalism, government influence and family/group interests makes the region of Banat a most interesting case-study for the election process in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Keywords: elections, political parties, prosopography, the Banat, Hungary

Angela RUS « Back
Consideraţii privind adoptarea primelor reglementări cu caracter electoral din România postcomunistă. 1990-1996

The events of December 1989 have removed the power structures of the dictatorial regime and, naturally, all the constitutional and electoral dispositions issued by that regime. This change imposed the necessity to the juridical regulation of the new state organisms, of the conditions for the political parties’ organising and functioning, and of the rules for organising and conducting the presidential, parliamentary or local elections. Starting with the first communique of the Frontul Salvării Naţionale (National Salvation Front), continuing with the transitional constitutional acts of 1989, the electoral law of 1990, until the Constitution of 1991, then with the law on local elections from the same year, and the electoral laws from 1992, for the election of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, respectively, for the election of the State President, all these undertakings contributed to the effort to legislate the new political realities in post-communist Romania.
Keywords: Political regime; elections; Constitution; electoral law; political party.

Claudiu MARIAN « Back
Contextul istorico-politic italian în anii 1992-1993

Prezentul articol relevă transformările suferite de sistemul politic şi electoral din Italia, precum şi modificările în structura partidelor induse de acesta. Este analizat în detaliu climatul politic italian din anii 1992-1993, când sistemul de partid trecea printr-un proces traumatizant de descompunere şi de redefinire. Principala metodă de cercetare utilizată este analiza de document.
Keywords: sistem electoral, partid politic, alegeri, Parlament, Tangentopoli, Mani Pulite.

Andrei Florin SORA « Back
Avatarurile unei instituţii de învăţământ particular: Şcoala Superioară de Ştiinţe de Stat, 1871-1948

The present study aims to circumscribe the role played by the Higher School of Governance (Şcoala Superioară de Ştiinţe de Stat) in the Romanian society, as well as its importance for the development of administrative and political sciences. To this end, as a necessary step towards an explanation to the School’s place in the Romanian education and to the status of both the students and the alumni, I shall analyze the key moments of the institution’s history. The continuous survival of the institution for almost 77 years reveals, as we shall see, its remarkable ability to adapt to different social, political, economic and cultural contexts. One must also consider the teachers and the school’s leadership, the two layers conferring prestige and stability to the establishment. Due to the fact that many of the school’s teachers were well/known at that time and were often the best in their field of study, and because graduating was a difficult thing to achieve, for specific historical periods one may consider that the diplomas issued by this institution had significant value.
Keywords: education, public administration, political science, private school education, students, civil servants, Higher School of Governance.

Irina NASTASĂ-MATEI « Back
Relaţiile culturale româno-germane în perioada 1933-1944. Acordurile culturale

The cultural relations between Germany and Romania during 1933-1944 developed in close connexion with the international context and the economic and political developments. Similar to the economic and political relations between the two countries, the cultural ones were frail at the beginning of the Nazi regime, the German- Romanian cultural activities being rather sporadic and spontaneous than systematic and regulated. An increase in the academic exchanges between the two countries occurred amid the economic – and than political – rapprochement between them. The first documents regulating the cultural relations and the student exchanges between Germany and Romania were annexes to the economic agreements – the ones from 23rd of March 1935 and 23rd of March 1939 – an actual cultural convention being signed on November 7, 1942, which was valid until 1944.
Keywords: cultural relations, cultural agreements, Romania, Nazi Germany.

Vasile PUȘCAȘ « Back
Philip E. Mosely şi Şcoala sociologică a lui Dimitrie Gusti

Philip E. Mosely, professor and researcher, was one of the pioneers of American sociology studies in rural South Eastearn Europe, a disciple of Dimitrie Gusti and his promoter within the Anglo -Saxon academic environment.While learning from Dimitrie Gusti he has conducted his own research on the social aspects of Romanian village and went even further, insisting on the psychological part of the matter. Professor Mosely's interest for rural life led him to the Balkans, where he studied the phenomenon called "zadruga" and provided to the American and European researchers involved in applied anthropology with valuable information. Professor Mosely contributed to the recognition of Professor Dimitrie Gusti's method of research in American academic environment, highlighting the contribution of this research on the evolution of social life.This paper analyzes the rural sociological studies of Philip E. Mosely and reveals his involvement in shaping social policies in rural areas at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Keywords: Philip E. Mosely, zadruga, Dimitrie Gusti, rural sociology, Romanian villages

Matei GHEBOIANU « Back
The functioning of entry requirements to Romanian higher education. Case study: history studies (1948-1989)

In the following, we analyze the admission requirements to higher education, specialization history, in the History Faculties of the Universities of Bucharest, Cluj and Iasi. In the early 1950s, admission to higher education and especially history specialization was drastically controlled, given that this area was considered as one ideological. During this period, in most cases, the „file” of the would-be candidate was more important than his/her level of knowledge. In 1957, the Council of Ministers adopted the Decision no. 1003 of July 10, which provided an increased number of students coming from families of workers and poor peasants up to the percentage of 70-75% and. Thus, the aforementioned returns the study of the "file" in the admission exam for the candidates. Gradually, the importance of the candidate’s "file" decreased, being replaced entirely by knowledge examinations. Thus, in the mid and late 1960s degree graduates of technical secondary schools, with baccalaureate exam or its equivalent, could present to the admission exams for higher education. In the 1970s and 1980s, for the admission competition to higher education concerning extramural courses and evening courses could register candidates that "prove that are employed", besides the aforementioned conditions. Starting with the academic year 1977/78, the Education Ministry decided to replace history with a double specialization “history – philosophy". This change was accompanied by the merger of the two faculties at the main universities of Romania (Bucharest, Cluj, Iaşi). This measure proved to be an uninspired decision, which pointed in a documentary made by the Ministry of Education in 1989.
Keywords: history, admission, students, social structure, gender

Valentin MAIER « Back
Evoluţia instituţiilor muzicale de învăţământ superior din timpul regimului comunist

The history of the Romanian higher education in the communist regime is a less researched subject, although the higher education represented the main way to train new and specialized workforce in the communist quest for a ,,new society”. In the following paper we will present some aspects regarding the evolution of the music higher education, mainly because of two reasons. The first is related to the anniversary, this year, of 150 years from the establishment of the music higher education in Romania (1864-2014) and to the need to fill the information gap in its history, with the developments in the communist regime. The other reason is because music higher education, and actually the fields of the artistic higher education were not considered as a main priority in the development of higher education and of the communist Romania. In this background it becomes interesting to know how it functioned and to resolve this challenge, we present and analyze the structural changes of the Conservatories, some of their characteristics and the statistical data (between 1960 and 1989) regarding their total number of students, the number of freshmen and the number of graduates.
Keywords: higher education, music higher education, communist regime, statistical data

Iosif Marin BALOG « Back
Efectele socio-economice ale mineritului în „patrulaterul aurifer” al Apusenilor în perioada 1850-1914

This study aims to analyse the socio-economic effects of gold mining in Transylvania in the period 1850-1910. Starting from historical and statistical sources, the author sets the area in which gold mining focused on that time. Based on the maps made by the experts, the author highlights a number of 33 localities. There are also presented regional demographic trends and developments in the comparative perspective of the Transylvania. The author also claims that between economic growth and demographic area there was an obvious connection. On social structures, both census data of 1857 and those of 1910 outlines a specific profile of the region. What can be noticed is that the most visible changes in the gold mining and social structure occurred at the end of the 19th century. The foreign capital has made large investments and introduced new technologies that have changed the labour productivity. As a result, the communities that had benefited from these investments, recognized higher rates of development. Where mining has evolved in the old traditional frames with outdated methods and techniques in the form of small peasant mining, communities remained at a low level of modernization.
Keywords: Transylvania, gold mining, social change, modernization

Róbert NAGY « Back
Industrializare şi dezvoltare regională în Valea Jiului în perioada 1867-1918

Situated in the South-Eastern part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, in Transylvania the western-type industrialization process begun only at the 2nd half of the 19th century. After the construction of the railways that connected the Jiu Valley with the market of the double monarchy, the mining industry attracted the most important amount of capital invested in the region. The rich coal fields of the valley were discovered before the 1848th revolution, but the industrial type exploitation begun only after the construction of the railway. The real take off happened in the 1880th. The most important entrepreneurs of the valley became the Salgótarján Coal Mining Company, the Uricani-Valea Jiului Hungarian Coal Mining Company, the Upper Jiu Valley Coal Mining Society and the Royal Hungarian Coal and Graphite Mining Company. As a direct result of the investment in the production equipment and infrastructure, at the beginning of the 20th century the Jiu Valley became the second most important coalfield of the Hungarian half of the double monarchy. As the result of the colonization the population of the region increased from 12 671 in 1869 to 50 015 in 1910.
Keywords: Transylvania, Jiu Valley, coal mining, industrialization, urbanization

Marius BORZAN « Back
Păşunile comunale din Sălaj în legea de reformă agrară din 1921

This study relate some aspects of applying one of the most important interbelic reforms the agricultural one, that refers to allotment of the countryside who have forests and grassland. Solving countryside grassland problem has been imposed for the maintenance and development of the zootechnic segment, being the most important activity where the only occupation has been the animal growing. As in the case of the cultivable fields and grasslands ownership, there were distributed poor quality lands, losts of wilderness areas were improper for grasing, because they didn΄t had any access to them and they were situated far away from the villages. In Salaj although there were numerous countryside requests for gross ownerships or to completing for the existing ones, allotment has been done by transforming some vast forest surfaces into grassland according to art. 24 agricultural law.
Keywords: forced allotment, committees, agricultural committee, allotment, agricultural law, allotment lots, owners, countryside, forests and grasslands, agricultural reform

Susana ANDEA « Back
Actul scris şi valoarea lui probatorie în practica judiciară din Transilvania (sec. XIII-XIV)

Starting from a general analysis of the writing praxis in the medieval kingdom of Hungary and of the use of written documents as judicial evidence, the present study aims a depiction of the similar phenomenon of the medieval institutions situated in nowadays Transylvania. Researching the texts issued within a legal context by the Voivode, authentication places and other local institutions allowed a first conclusion, namely a delay in the use of the written document. The development from the oral to the written mandate was observed in particular, noting that the process was still underway at the middle of the fourteenth century.
Keywords: Transylvania, writing, judiciary documents, mandate, written act

Avram ANDEA « Back
Scripte şi dieci pe domeniile Făgăraş şi Gurghiu în secolul al XVII-lea

This article follows in a functional perspective the writing practice on the Transylvanian fiscal estates (owned by the state) Făgăraş and Gurghiu in the 17th Century. A closer look is given to rent-rolls, inventories and accounts of the estates, written periodically for the administrators by literate individuals. The activity of these scribes (dieci, ro., literati, lat.) and the rich written material produced was the object of a complex economical legislation issued by Transylvanian princes (e.g. 1623, 1634 and 1676) or of other complementary laws. Hiring such functionaries, who were able to write and calculate – in order to increase the income revenue of the estates –, had as a meritocratic consequence their social and "professional" mobility, eventually, at times, their ennoblement. All these made a contribution to the advance of writing and to an increased interest for schooling and education in the rural area, but were also very important for the modernization of the economic life and a new social dynamics.
Keywords: Transylvania, rent-rolls, scribe (literatus), superintendent, inventories and accounts

Kurt SCHARR « Back
Fondul religionar greco-oriental din Bucovina – bătălie culturală şi construct naţional în oglinda unei instituţii

The purpose of this article is to correlate the situation of Ruthenian- Ukrainian identity struggles in Austrian Bukovina to similar Romanian struggles in the context of a common religious fund and Church. Starting from this situation of Bukovinian society at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, the author formulates the following questions: What was the cause of this tendency towards separate national identities of Ruthenians and Romanians in Bukovina, despite their predominantly Orthodox heritage? Did the Greek-Oriental religious estate of Bukovina and the Bukovina Orthodox Church of the second half of the nineteenth century become an “instrument” in the cultural-national struggle? Who influenced the discourse of the time dealing with the religious estate, and with the Church, respectively? What spheres and levels of influence were involved? One of the major conclusions of the author is that the Greek-Oriental Religious Fund, its value and the access to it became, starting with 1849, one of the stakes of the “cultural struggle” between the Ruthenians and the Romanians in the province; that struggle inexorably led to an ethnically motivated fragmentation of the formerly unifying Orthodox faith, even before World War I.
Keywords: Bukovina, Orthodox Church, Greek-Oriental Regliious Fund, Ruthenians, Romanians

Tatiana ONILOV « Back
Armata operativă ţaristă de intervenţie în Imperiul Austriac şi în Transilvania la 1849

The goals of our essay are to describe the structure and organization of the Russian military forces that interferred, in 1849, in the inner affairs and revolutions of the Austrian Empire, including the invasion of an operative army corps on the territory of the Great Autonomous Principality of Transylvania. The tsarist army is described in connexion with the corresponding Russian military glossary. Our investigation is based on documents from Russian archives, on military writings and publications of the 19th and 20th centuries, which are less known and practiced in the historical debates. From the general frame of the entire Russian army involved in the tsarist campaign in the Austrian Empire, by presenting the supreme military leadership, as well as the general structure and organization of the Russian army, the focus turns to a narrower perspective, referring specifically to the 5th tsarist infantry corps during its summer 1849 intervention in Transylvania against the Hungarian troops. The command over the highly important and decisive military operations in Transylvania was assigned to general adjutant Aleksandr Nikolaevich Lüders, commander in chief of the 5th infantry corps. Although leading a much smaller military force than those commanded by both marshal Paskevich, general commander of the entire Russian operative army in Austria, and general Rüdiger, commander of the 4th intervention corps in Hungary, the skillful general Lüders managed to play a crucial role in defeating the Hungarian troops in Transylvania. We analyse the order of battle, the tactical commanders, as well as the manpower of the 5th tsarist infantry corps. Not only the good strategy and superior manpower, but also the military training and experience ensured the victory of the Russian army.
Keywords: 1849, Russian army, the tsarist intervention in Transylvania, 5th infantry corps, general Lüders

Cosmin Ştefan DOGARU « Back
Le projet du prince étranger. L’avènement de Charles de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen au trône de Roumanie en 1866

The intention of this paper is to analyze the project of the foreign prince, an accomplished aim of the Romanian political elite, in 1866. During the first half of the nineteenth century the idea of the foreign prince has signified a fundamental goal for the local elite. In May 1866, this goal come to be a certainty, by the arrival of Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen on the throne of Romania, ensuring intern political stability and strengthening the Romanian state.
Keywords: Charles I; political stability; Romanian state; political elite; foreign prince

Flavius SOLOMON « Back
În căutarea unei dinastii sau a unei republici. România în proiecţiile postbelice ale Puterilor Centrale şi ale Rusiei sovietice

The four documents published and extensively commented upon by the author originate from the Political Archive of the German Foreign Ministry (Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes) and touch upon a subject that has hitherto been scarcely discussed by Romanian historians. They refer to the plans put forward during the winter of 1917-1918 to replace King Ferdinand with a new monarch coming from another German princely family or, conversely, to establish a Soviet-type republic in Romania. Within a broader context, the documents also provide some revealing information concerning the projects and designs of the Central Powers and of Soviet Russia with regard to a prospective postwar world that was to be organized on the basis of an “exemplary” punishment of all those presumably deemed guilty of the “great European tragedy.” The documents also discuss the situation of the local elites on the occupied territories, Germany’s and Austria-Hungary’s attitudes towards the smaller states situated in their geographical proximity and the future political and economic role of these states within a postwar world that was to be founded on radically different principles. Finally, these documents also show the collaboration between the Germans and Austro-Hungarians, on the one hand, and the Bolsheviks, on the other, in those cases when both found enough common ground concerning certain concrete issues of common interest.
Keywords: The Archive of the German Foreign Ministry; World War I; the Romanian pro-German elites; Romania’s relations with the Central Powers and Soviet Russia; the Romanian Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty

Veronica TURCUŞ, Alexandru Ioan HELTIANU « Back
Un caz inedit de spionaj românesc în Italia (1955-1957): Teodor Verche, ataşatul de presă de la Ambasada României pe lângă Quirinale

Based on valuable documents discovered in the Archive of the Ministry of the External Affaires of Italy the authors present the details of an interesting case of espionage in Italy in the 50’s. The subject of this case is the press officier of Romania at Rome, Teodor Verche. His activity was focused on gathering information from politics, military and economic areas, within other intelligence services located in Rome such us those from the USA or USSR. In this action were involved many subjects: diplomats, journalists, Italian citizens, Romanians, Soviets, Americans and from Vatican, who act in a very sensitive and difficult period of the international relationship in the European context.
Keywords: Romania, Italy, diplomacy, press, espionage

Veronica TURCUŞ, Şerban TURCUŞ « Back
Contribuţii diplomatice la biografia lui Ion Mihai Pacepa: prima tentativă de acreditare

This paper is a historical contribution regarding the first attempt of accreditation of Ion Mihai Pacepa as officer in diplomacy at the Romanian Embassy in Italy during 1955-1956. The young officer of the Romanian intelligence services was trained and ready to „work” in the embassy from Italy and Germany. But this project wasn’t realised and Pacepa made a short visit in Italy only after the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Treaty’s troops in 1968. The Appendix presents the original texts of two telespressos of the Italian Embassy in Bucharest regarding the request of the Ion Mihai Pacepa for a visa permit.
Keywords: Romania, Italy, Ion Mihai Pacepa, diplomacy, espionage

Margareta ASLAN « Back
„Kirk Vezir” în corespondențele orientaliștilor Vámbéry Ármin și Goldziher Ignácz

The alleged manuscript Kırk Vezir [ The fourty viziers] found in Cluj, is actually a transcript dating from Hegira 1153 [1740/1741 AD] of the epistles of belletrist Ibn Zeydûn under the title Risâle-i Cevheriyye [Book of Gems], edited by Ismâ`îl al-Bagdâdâ. The manuscript, which is structured in two parts, contains ornaments in varak, however, it is in deplorable condition. The epistles, considered to be jewels of the epic and epistolographic writing of 11th century Muslim Spain, were written to his beloved, the Omeyyad princess Wallâda bint al-Mustakfi, and to the Caliph Abu al-Hazm bin Djahwar – in order to persuade him to forgive. The correspondence between renowned Orientalists on these epistles determines the identity of the manuscript. A certain Schmidt provides a brief record of the book. Goldziher Ignácz, the disciple of Vámbéry Ármin, by accessing the resources of his time produces a remarkable assessment, a short biography of Ibn Zeydûn, and determines the title. Vámbéry sets the price of the book at HUF 30-40. Torma Károly, the significant politician and law professor in Cluj, tries to convert the Hegira years. The nobleman is not able to sell the book. The manuscript has a considerable scientific value, both in terms of its content and the correspondence that was carried out with regard to it.
Keywords: manuscript, Risâle-i Cevheriyye, Ibn Zaydûn al-Makhzumi, Vámbéry Ármin, Goldziher Ignácz

Claudia DĂRĂBAN « Back
Consideraţii demografice asupra armenilor din Gherla în perioada interbelică

The following study tackle the issue of Armenian demographics of Gherla in the interwar period. Using information collected from the existing archive materials, census data and existing studies, we can notice the existence of a certain dynamic at the level of the Armenian community of the village, which managed to rebuild the community economic and social power based on the newly arrived immigrants from the former Ottoman Empire. For this short period the well-known occupations of this ethno-cultural group managed to flourish on the traditional base brought by the group of newcomers.
Keywords: Armenian, Gherla, Armenian-Catholics, demography

Lucian NASTASĂ « Back
O comemorare disputată. Asasinarea lui Nicolae Iorga şi mediul universitar

The following article uses some archive sources to show the general state of spirit at the University of Bucharest and Iasi after Nicolae Iorga’s assassination. It is clear that although in Romania the legionary terror regime was present, some courageous voices cried out against this hideous crime, but on the other hand there were some prominent cultural figures whom sympathized with the right-wing movement, however they shoved their cowardice nature after the events of 1940 November.
Keywords: extreme right, legionary, political assassinate, university

Adriana BOGDAN « Back
Istoria prin aplicaţii multimedia

There are many areas, including History, influenced by computer and Internet technologies. Not long time ago, the information was mainly transmitted by written texts, sometimes supplemented by images, tables and charts, often located on appendices. Now, by multimedia applications, the same information can be displayed on the computer, accessible on-line, and are providing more expressivity by the cumulative effect of text, audio, video, animation and interactivity. But the real benefit consists not only in presenting history in an attractive manner but also in approaching the historical research. Therefore, historians are invited to watch at the fascinating history viewed by multimedia applications.
Keywords: history, multimedia, text, image, animation, audio, video, interactivity

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