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Cuprinsul ANUARULUI Nr. LII din 2013



EDUCAŢIE ŞI ELITE
Ramona PREJAAspecte ale anexării Basarabiei de către Imperiul ţarist în 1812. Determinări asupra culturii, limbii şi învăţământului în arealul românesc dintre Prut şi NistruPDF
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Constantin BĂRBULESCUSouvenirs de pratique médicale. Les mémoires comme source de l’histoire de la médicine dans le XIXème sièclePDF
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Mirela POPA-ANDREICanonic la Oradea. Recrutarea şi promovarea canonicilor în dieceza de Oradea Mare în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-leaPDF
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Andrei Florin SORADosarele de cadre ale nomenclaturii comuniste: Prim-secretarii comitetelor regionale/judeţene ale PMR/PCR (1950-1989)PDF
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Irina NASTASĂ-MATEIStudenţi din România la universităţile străine în perioada 1919-1944PDF
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Veronica TURCUŞBursierul român în străinătate în perioada interbelică. Aspecte sociologice şi educaţionalePDF
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Florentina CĂRBUNARUIstorie intelectuală şi cooperarea elitelor. Comisiile Ligii Naţiunilor pentru cooperare intelectuală şi România (1921-1939)PDF
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Gabriel ASANDULUIParty studies in Communist Romania. The Superior School of Social Sciences “Andrei Aleksandrovici Zhdanov” (1948-1958)PDF
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ISTORIE ŞI DIPLOMAŢIE
Robert-Marius MIHALACHEAspectele transilvane ale Legaţiei Cardinalului Iacob De Preneste (1232-1234)PDF
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Andreea MÂRZAImplicaţii a doi umanişti europeni, Enea Silvio Piccolomini şi Nicolaus Olahus, în acţiunile antiotomanePDF
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Ela COSMAInterese habsburgo-ţariste la graniţele Basarabiei şi Novorusiei la 1848. Cazul consulului general austriac de la Odesa, Ludwig von Gutmannsthal PDF
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Loránd MÁDLYDie Gemeindegesetzgebung in Siebenbürgen und ihre Regelung während des Neoabsolutismus und LiberalismusPDF
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Alessandro BIANCHIL’Italia e la questione romana: proposte di accordo rispetto alle delimitazioni territoriali con La Santa Sede nel 1870-71PDF
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Şerban TUCUŞCorpul diplomatic acreditat la Bucureşti în anul 1946. O mărturie contemporanăPDF
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ISTORIE ŞI IDEOLOGIE
Gelu NEAMŢUDistrugerea documentelor românilor ardeleni pentru a-i elimina din istorie 1848-1854PDF
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Nicolae TEŞCULĂThe Transylvanian Saxon Associationism and the Publications: Siebenbürgische Zeitschrift für Handel, Gewerbe Und Landwirtschaft ( 1865-1868)PDF
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Veronica TURCUŞ, Şerban TURCUŞRomânia legionară şi impactul asupra instituţiilor de cultură. Studiu de caz - Accademia di Romania din RomaPDF
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Corneliu PINTILESCUEdificarea vinovăţiei politice între abordări teoretice şi practici judiciare: cazul activităţii Tribunalului Militar Cluj (1948-1956)PDF
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Gabriel MOISAHistoriography and Politics in Communist Romania. Nicolae Titulescu Case PDF
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Lauro GRASSIUn falso diario di Mussolini e una sua discutibile “autopsia”PDF
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Dalia BÁTHORYPentru o epistemologie a memoriei: conceptualizarea discursului memoriei colective în postcomunism PDF
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ISTORIE - ADMINISTRAŢIE - ECONOMIE - URBANIZARE
Susana ANDEAAdunările de stări din Transilvania şi comitatele din nord-vestul ţării şi actele emise (sec. XIII-XVI)PDF
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Ibolya SIPOSRolul colonizărilor în dezvoltarea economică a Lugojului în secolul al XVIII-leaPDF
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Iosif Marin BALOGEconomic Policy of Habsburgs in Transylvania in the mid-nineteenth Century. Significance and Effects of Introducing the TelegraphPDF
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Mara MĂRGINEANMobilitatea socială în oraşul Hunedoara. 1945-1968PDF
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MISCELLANEA
Lucian NASTASĂCazul Ionescu-Caion. Câteva precizări aparent nesemnificativePDF
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RECENZII
Gelu NEAMŢU, Ela COSMA (coord), Biografii paşoptiste (3) Culegere de studii, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Argonaut, 2011, 387 p. (Mirela POPA ANDREI)PDF
Liviu NEAGOE, Elite, Naţiune şi Societate în România Modernă, Cluj Napoca, Editura Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2012, 254 p. (Claudia DĂRĂBAN)PDF
NOTE BIBLIOGRAFICE
Liliana Condraticova, Alexei Marco. Destinul unui bijutier din Moldova, Iaşi, Editura Lumen, 2011, 200 p. (cu il.) (Anca Elisabeta Tatay)PDF
Dumitru Suciu, Soldaţi fără uniformă ai Landsturmului românesc şi starea protopopiatelor ortodoxe din Transilvania după Războiul Naţional din 1848-1849, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Argonaut, 2011, 313 pag. (Ion Cârja)PDF
Dumitru Suciu (coord.), Revoluţia transilvană de la 1848-1849. Date, realităţi şi fapte reflectate în documente bisericeşti ortodoxe 1848 1850, volum întocmit de: Dumitru Suciu, Alexandru Moraru, Iosif Marin Balog, Diana Covaci, Cosmin Cosmuţa, Loránd Mádly, Bucureşti, Editura ASAB, 2011, 588 pag. (Ion Cârja)PDF
Ela Cosma, Nouă luni în Transilvania (decembrie 1848 – august 1849) Generalul Józef Bem în corespondenţă, proclamaţii, documente) Editura Argonaut, Cluj-Napoca, 2011, 455 p. (Gelu Neamţu)PDF
Dumitru Suciu (coord.), Biserică, şcoală şi comunitate ortodoxă în Transilvania în epoca modernă. Documente. Protopopiatul Cetatea de Piatră şi Eparhia Sibiului. Corespondenţă 1849-1874, vol. II/1, întocmit de Dumitru Suciu Alexandru Moraru, Iosif Marin Balog, Vlad Popovici, Cosmin Cosmuţa, Flaviu Vida, Nicoleta Han, Loránd Mádly, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Argonaut, 2011, p. 625. (Mirela Popa-Andrei)PDF
Nicoleta Ploşnea, Biserici, Şcoli, comunităţi rurale româneşti din Covasna şi Harghita (1850–1918), Editura Grai Românesc, 2012, 482 pag. (Daniela Deteşan)PDF
Gheorghe Iancu, Omul politic şi de cultură Valeriu Branişte, vol. I, 1869 1896, Timişoara, Editura de Vest, 2012, 958 p. (Dumitru Suciu) PDF
Kristóf Szongott, Oraşul Liber Regal Gherla (1700-1900), Metropola Armeano-Maghiară, vol. III, volum tradus de Andreea Ghiţă şi îngrijit de Lucian Nastasă, Bucureşti, Edit. Ararat, 2012 (Claudia Dărăban)PDF
Gavin Bowd, Un géographe français et la Roumanie. Emmanuel de Martonne (1873-1955), Paris, France, L’Harmattan, 2012, 217 p. ISBN 978-2-296-96421-1 (Ana-Maria Stan)PDF
Nagy Róbert, Capitalul forţă a modernizării. Rolul capitalului german în industrializarea Transilvaniei (1880-1918), Cluj-Napoca, Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2011, 297 p.(Ludovic Báthory)PDF
Constantin Bărbulescu, Alin Ciupală (ed.), Medicine, Hygiene and Society from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Mega, 2011, 286 p. (Silvia Mitricioaei)PDF
Mihai Teodor Nicoară, Universitatea "Regele Ferdinand I" din Cluj între două dictaturi (1940-1947), Cluj-Napoca, Editura Accent, 2012, 383 p. (Marcela Sălăgean)PDF
Lucrări reeditate privind istoria Bucovinei: Bucovina în primele descrieri geografice, istorice, economice şi demografice , ediţie bilingvă îngrijită, cu introducere, postfeţe, note şi comentarii de acad. Radu Grigorovici, prefaţă D. Vatamaniuc, ed. a 2-a, Cernăuţi, Editura Alexandru cel Bun, 2011, 437 p.; Radu Economu, Unirea Bucovinei 1918 , Cernăuţi, Editura Alexandru cel Bun, 2011, 212 p. (Vlad Popovici) PDF
Stelian Mândruţ, Rudolf Gräf (ed./Hrsg.), Între ştiinţă şi politică. Fritz Valjavec şi corespondenţii săi români (1935-1944). Zwischen Wissenschaft und Politik. Fritz Valjavec`s Briefwechesel mit rumänischen Gelehrten (1935-1944). Cuvânt înainte/Vorwort: Camil Mureşanu. Postfaţă/Nachwort: Anneli Ute Gabanyi. Cluj-Napoca / Klausenburg, Academia Română /Rumänische Akademie, Centrul de Studii Transilvane/ Zentrum für Siebenbürgische Studien, 2010, 574 p. (Petre Ţurlea)PDF
Mihaela Gligor, Miriam Caloianu (ed.), Theodor Lavi în corespondenţă, Cluj-Napoca, Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2012, 500 p. (Silvia Mitricioaei) PDF
Claudia Maria Udrescu, Universitatea din București. Modele și traiectorii post-comuniste Bucureşti, Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti, 2011, 215 p. (Florentina Cărbunaru)PDF
Vasile Boari, Ștefan Borbély, Radu Murea: Identitate românească în context european. Coordonate istorice şi culturale, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Risoprint, 2009,436 p. (Florentina Cărbunaru)PDF
REVISTA REVISTELOR
„Anuarul Institutului de Istorie «George Bariţiu» din Cluj-Napoca” la 90 de ani de la apariţie (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
„Piramida. Revistă de cultură, investigaţie şi atitudine”, Zrenjanin, I, (nr.1/2010/2011), 150 p; (nr. 2/2011) 133p; II, (nr.3/ 2011) 149p; II, (nr. 4/2012) 163p. (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
„Destin Românesc. Revistă de istorie şi cultură” Serie Nouă, Chişinău, 2011, VI (XVII), nr. 5-6 (75-76), 183p. (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
„Revista de Istorie a Moldovei”, Chişinău, 2011 nr. 1-2, 2011, 198p; 2011, nr. 3-4, 258 p. (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
„Promemoria. Revista Institutului de Istorie Socială”, Chişinău, Vol. I, nr. 1-2, 2011, 302 (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
„Annales historici Presovienses”, vol. 8/2008, 9/2009, 10/2010 ISSN 1336-7528 (Radu Mârza)PDF
VIAŢA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
Simpozionul Internaţional „Bicentenar George Bariţiu. 1812-2012” (Cluj Napoca, 24 mai 2012) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Cea de a XXI-a Reuniune a Comisiei Mixte de Istorie Româno-Ungare (Sibiu, 28 mai – 1 iunie 2012) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Cea de a X-a Reuniune a Comisiei Mixte de Istorie Româno-Slovacă (Banská Bystrica, 24-27 septembrie 2012) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF


Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Ramona PREJA « Back
Aspecte ale anexării Basarabiei de către Imperiul ţarist în 1812. Determinări asupra culturii, limbii şi învăţământului în arealul românesc dintre Prut şi Nistru

The study offers a digest of Bessarabia’s history after its annexation by the Russian Empire (1812) and during the 19th century, illustrated by valuable statistical data concerning especially the population and the educational system. The administrative measures adopted by the tzarist occupation authorities were accompanied by a demographic politics of colonization. On one hand, the Romanian population crossed in large numbers the Prut river, taking refuge to the Romanian Principalities; on the other hand, the tzars Alexander I and Nicholas I brought to Bessarabia foreign colonists from Switzerland (Lausanne), France, Greece, Poland. Mass colonizations of Bulgarians, Germans, Jews and Gagauzians were intended to change the demographical balance and to pave the way to Russification. In spite of their difficult political and national situation in Bessarabia, the Romanians manifested active resistance to Russification by culture, as they managed to continue editing books even if in small numbers, preserving the Romanian language in their primary and secondary schools, as well as in their churches. The passive resistance was reflected in the refuse of the Romanian population to learn and use the Russian language.
Keywords: Bessarabia, 1812, 19th century, Russification, Romanian language, culture, church, schools

Constantin BĂRBULESCU « Back
Souvenirs de pratique médicale. Les mémoires comme source de l’histoire de la médicine dans le XIXème siècle

The paper is trying to present a category of sources for the history of Romanian physicians and medicine in the 19th century and the beginning of the following one: memoirs written by physicians. Before showing the value of this category of sources for the nowadays historian, we tried to see how these memoirs are written and which is their motivation. In other words why physicians are writing memoirs and how they write them, based on what sources? Generally we may divide the memoirs analyzed into two big categories: an autobiographic one where the stress is upon the life history of the author and a historical one where the main competence is historical and thus, being in the 19th century, national. In this latter category the main character is no longer the author, he is just a witness to the Great History and especially to its hot and tragic events. Memoirs prove to be an important source for the historian interested in physicians and medicine of the XIX-th century, an indispensable source we might say. Because, most of the times in old age, when they write their memoirs our physicians open their souls and put on the paper life fragments that other sources refer with difficulty or not at all. Many times memoirs are testimonies for the marginal practices like surgery “in town” that are not in conformity with the ideology of the medical practice of the time and consequently, they are hidden. The multitude of empiric healers specialized or not, that swarm in the villages and cities of Romania before 1900, so well described by Doctor Severeanu, are entering seldom and with great difficulty in the lights of history.
Keywords: history of medicine, history of the 19th century, memoirs.

Mirela POPA-ANDREI « Back
Canonic la Oradea. Recrutarea şi promovarea canonicilor în dieceza de Oradea Mare în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea

This study proposes a new perspective on known data and institutions, an approach that combines positivist historical research with sociological analysis based on the prosopographic and comparative methods. Thanks to this approach, to the analysis made, we can say that the process of selection and promotion of the higher clergy in the Diocese of Oradea had for a main criterion the intellectual and professional training of candidates. Selection of future canons was first made among young people with higher education, graduated from Rome, Vienna and Pest, who, at the same time, had taken the clothes of celibacy, preferences heading then towards young people who had completed their studies in Trnava, Ungvari and Oradea. Thus of the 20 canon holders who were part of the Chapter of Oradea, in the half of a century under our research, 7 had achieved theological studies in Vienna, 4 in Pest, 2 in Rome, 2 in Trnava and 5 in Oradea. Five of them also owned the doctoral degree: 2 of Rome and 3 of Vienna. The rigor for the intellectual and professional formation of chapter members may be an explanation for the fact that in the second half of the XIX-th century the institution of the Chapter of Oradea was a true nursery of bishops (of the 20 canons, 5 became bishops). Of course, it should be noted that the second criterion commonly used in the recruitment and promotion of the clergy was that of the civil status, most likely accounting for the priests who in addition to studies opted for celibacy. However, we have to mention that 5 of the 20 canons that were part of the Chapter of Oradea between 1853-1900 (meaning 25%) were recruited from among widowed priests, some also having offspring.
Key words: episcopacy of Oradea, Cathedral Chapter, canon, recruitment, promotion.

Andrei Florin SORA « Back
Dosarele de cadre ale nomenclaturii comuniste: Prim-secretarii comitetelor regionale/judeţene ale PMR/PCR (1950-1989)

The ‘First Secretaries’ of the Regional/County Committees of the Romanian Workers’ Party (RWP) and, starting with 1965 of the Romanian Communist Party (RCP) represented the summit of the party hierarchy at local level. Starting with this well delimited group of RWP/RCP members, I aim to discover the constant features present in the personnel dossiers. I consider that it is appropriate to study the types of documents present in these files, of their format and evolution and to see what was the importance of the biographical information in the decision process concerning the selection for a political and/or administrative position. I want to identify if there are common features between the members of the same generation and, more prominently, to what extent the weak points in a dossier matter in distinct historical periods or in specific moments of somebody’s career.
Key words: communism, communist nomenklatura, the ‘First Secretaries’ of the Regional/County Committees of the RWP/RCP, personnel dossiers

Irina NASTASĂ-MATEI « Back
Studenţi din România la universităţile străine în perioada 1919-1944

This article aims to provide some remarks on the migration of the young people from Romania to foreign institutions of higher education in the interwar period and during the World War II. The main purpose was to establish the motivation of the Romanian students for going to study abroad, as well as the quantitative evolution of the phenomenon.
Key words: peregrinatio academica, higher education, ethnic minorities, cultural exchange, cultural politics

Veronica TURCUŞ « Back
Bursierul român în străinătate în perioada interbelică. Aspecte sociologice şi educaţionale

Romanian School of Rome, founded in 1920 as a state institution for postgraduate education under the scientific patronage of the Romanian Academy, was designed for the specialization studies of the graduates in the fields of history, archeology, Romance and Classic philology, research in archives and libraries and arts cultivation. It was conducted in the years 1929-40 by the archaeologist and professor of ancient history at the University of Cluj, Emil Panaitescu. Director Panaitescu took care of maintaining the Institution’s study tradition, following the research directions established by the Director-founder Vasile Pârvan and particularly stimulating the development of the School’s artistic section, first opened in 1925. During the 11 years when he was in the forefront of the Eternal City’s Romanian School, Panaitescu supervised the work of 86 young professionals from a total of approximately 120 scholars as the Romanian School in Rome had from 1922 to 1947. The research promoted at the Romanian School of Rome in the field of archeology was subsumed to the project Tabula Imperii Romani, the one in the field of ancient history was dedicated to the study of Latium, of the Roman provinces sites by the lower Danube, of Trajan’s Column and Roman Forum. Archive investigations chronologically continued the research line proposed by Pârvan (identification of unpublished material concerning the Romanian Principalities and their relations with the Holy See and European monarchies) and some scholars undertook researches on the Romanian-Italian relationships in the XIX-th century. Part of Romanists’ philological studies were directed to the issue of Istro-Romanians’ language, history and folklore. Internal life at the Romanian School of Rome in the ’30s was marked by beautiful friendships, respectful attitudes, emulations and also by contrasts. Common sources of dispute were not allowing the lodge of the married scholars in the School and the dining organization of the institution.
Key words: interwar period, high education, scholarship, archeology, linguistics.

Florentina CĂRBUNARU « Back
Istorie intelectuală şi cooperarea elitelor. Comisiile Ligii Naţiunilor pentru cooperare intelectuală şi România (1921-1939)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changing meaning of intellectual cooperation in the interwar period. The term “intellectual cooperation”, now used in a broad sense, came into existence as an idealistic expression for world peace after World War I. In addition, it came to be embodied in 1922 as an international organization, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. For this reason, this committee along with the system of national committees that it was created during the interwar period have recently attracted attention as a pioneering international organization for cultural exchange in the field of international history. The National Committee for Intellectual Cooperation from Romania developed in this sense an extended activity in the matter of scientific and cultural exchange, creating means through which the Romanian elite collaborated in various field with intellectuals from all state members.
Key words: intellectual cooperation, elite, intellectual history, League of Nations

Gabriel ASANDULUI « Back
Party studies in Communist Romania. The Superior School of Social Sciences “Andrei Aleksandrovici Zhdanov” (1948-1958)

The Romanian Communist Party’s accession to the power structures of the state revealed the obvious lack of formal education of the party cadres present in these structures. In order to remedy this flaw, the leadership of the party, taking as a model the experience of the Soviet Union Communist Party, decided to establish the foundations of a system of “party studies”. Its purpose was to prepare the cadres for the ideological and organizational activities of the Party. To this aim, a hierarchy within the system of party studies was created, headed by the “Ştefan Gheorghiu” Academy and the Superior School of Social Sciences “Andrei Aleksandrovici Zhdanov”. The purpose of the latter was to prepare cadres of the higher echelon for ideological work – people involved in party studies and propaganda, editors with the various party newspapers, as well as professors and lecturers to teach social sciences in higher education institutions. The Superior School of Social Sciences “Andrei Aleksandrovici Zhdanov”, which was an elite institution of the Communist Party was taken over by the “Ştefan Gheorghiu” Academy in 1958. The reasons for this decision can be most likely found in the intention to concentrate within one institution the process of preparing the cadres of the higher echelon of the party and also in the desire to eliminate any form of competition among party schools. Thus, the Superior School of Social Sciences “Andrei Aleksandrovici Zhdanov” was a stronghold for the preparation of the ideological activists of the party; it was an institution which contributed to the creation of a host of activists which played an important role in the strengthening of the Communist Party.
Key words: Romania, party schools, communism, the Superior School of Social Sciences “Andrei Aleksandrovici Zhdanov”

Robert-Marius MIHALACHE « Back
Aspectele transilvane ale Legaţiei Cardinalului Iacob De Preneste (1232-1234)

A critical historical approach to the activity of cardinal Jacob of Preneste within the boundaries of the Hungarian kingdom is present in both Romanian and Hungarian historiography. The studies approach a broader subject such as Church History or the History of the Hungarian kingdom, as well as specialized fields. However, when it comes to the cardinal of Preneste, most researchers have discussed his legation on a general level. This article presents this subject from a detailed and hierocratic perspective, focusing on the papal legate’s activity in Transylvania (1232-1234). The main issues are: Why did the cardinal come into the Arpadian kingdom? Did he have any authority to intervene in the internal political processes? What were the cardinal’s purposes and how much did he achieve during his stay in the area?
Key words: cardinal Jacob of Preneste, legatus de latere, Arpadian kingdom, Transylvania, Terra Borza

Andreea MÂRZA « Back
Implicaţii a doi umanişti europeni, Enea Silvio Piccolomini şi Nicolaus Olahus, în acţiunile antiotomane

The study here below concerns only the correspondence of these two European humanists with the European personalities, correspondence which debates the letters depicting the actions necessary to drive the Turks away from Europe. In spite of the fact that these letters are numerous, we have chosen only those addressed to ecclesiastic personalities or kings and emperors such as: Popes Nicholas V and Calixtus III, King Alfonso V of Aragon and Naples, kings Charles VII and Louis IX of France, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy from Piccolomini’s correspondence. From Olahus’s correspondence we have selected the letters written to Pope Clement VII, King Ferdinand I and Emperor Charles V. We have used as primary source an incunabul for Piccolomini’s letters and a modern edition which contains the first part – the period between 1527-1538 – for Olahus’s letters. The implications of these two humanists on the European scene are very well-known, both on the literary plan and the diplomatic and military plan. First of all they were writers who acquired very good positions to the King’s court, which opened them the diplomatic ways with the advance of the Turks in Europe. They were both interested in the actions that Europe had to take in order to drive them away. Piccolomini as Pope Pius II tried very hard to organize o crusade against the Turks, but his efforts were swept away at his death; through his letters and speeches Olahus tried to draw the attention of the European rulers and save Hungary from the Turks’ cruelties. In spite of Piccolomini’s efforts in the XVth century and those of Olahus’ in the XVIth century, the Turks arrived to the gates of Vienna and menaced Europe for several centuries.
Key words: Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Nicolaus Olahus, correspondence, speech, Humanism, crusade

Ela COSMA « Back
Interese habsburgo-ţariste la graniţele Basarabiei şi Novorusiei la 1848. Cazul consulului general austriac de la Odesa, Ludwig von Gutmannsthal

The article presents the Habsburg-Tzarist interests at the fronteers of Bessarabia and Novorussia in 1848-1849. It recalls the role played by Galaţi, the biggest Romanian harbor, and by Sulina, a harbor with increasing significance, in the mid 19th century Austro-Russian competition. The structure of the Austrian consular system in Russia, with a special view on Bessarabia and Novorussia, is shown for the first time. In comparison with the more privileged Habsburg consular agencies on Romanian soil, those in the Tzarist Empire were opened and functioned under harsh circumstances. The case study of the Austrian general consul in Odesa during the revolutionary years reveals a completely different and much worse situation in the Russian Empire, too. Ludwig von Gutmannsthal, who initially shared the same enthusiastic prorevolutionary opinions as his fellowmate from Galaţi, was for a whole year (1848-1849) continuously tracked and chased by the okhrana, until he finally left for ever his consular mission in Novorussia.
Key words: Habsburg consulates, 1848-1849, Galaţi, Sulina, Bessarabia, Novorussia, Odesa

Loránd MÁDLY « Back
Die Gemeindegesetzgebung in Siebenbürgen und ihre Regelung während des Neoabsolutismus und Liberalismus

The issue of the implementation of municipal laws in the Kronland of Transylvania was sawn as one of the most important responsibilities by the Habsburg authorities in their reformistic plans; the importance of this fields resided in the deep social, political and economical implication of regulating the function of the smallest administrative entities. The specific legislation in this domain was strongly connected both with the political framework and with the detailed administrative arrangement of the province; the existing various local conditions in each of these hindered the application of a uniform and equal administrative and municipal regulatory system for the whole empire. After a long time, characterised by the leading principle of the three dominant nations, the Neoabsolutist decade proved itself as an optimal opportunity for creating a new framework, based on the principles of the time, which could implement a uniform administrative rule. However, the implementation of new municipal laws remained behind the more important reforms of this time and was managed through temporary decrees with local applicability. The end of the Bach regime, and due to the proclamation of new fundamental state principles, the Liberal age brought these issues in the foreground, this time under new circumstances, characterized by the dispute between the national movements of the province over the necessary reforms. Now, the austro-hungarian dispute became most important issue in the political development of the Monarchy and shaped all the developments of the state. Under these circumstances, the problem of the municipal regulations, along with other more or less important reforms, was constantly postponed, and the Liberal period, with all the hopes attached to it, proved to be only a provisional arrangement leading to the austro-hungarian dualism.
Key words: Transylvania, communal laws, Neoabsolutism, Liberalism, Reformism.

Alessandro BIANCHI « Back
L’Italia e la questione romana: proposte di accordo rispetto alle delimitazioni territoriali con La Santa Sede nel 1870-71

The purpose of this research is to study the diplomatic relationships between the italian government and the papacy during the period 1870-71, to define the relations between the Holy See and the Italian State after the occupation of Rome (september 20, 1870). The straight opposition of pope Pio IX to any proposition presented by the italian Prime Minister Giovanni Lanza and by the Minister of Foreign Affairs Emilio Visconti Venosta generated a painful fracture between Italy and the Catholic Church, a fracture that only the signature of the “Patti lateranensi” in 1929 could compose again.
Key words: Italia, Sfântul Scaun (Santa Sede), România, Napoleon III.

Şerban TUCUŞ « Back
Corpul diplomatic acreditat la Bucureşti în anul 1946. O mărturie contemporană

This study is based on a document stored in the diplomatic archives of the Italian Foreign Ministry, an overview of the internal life of the diplomatic corps accredited in Bucharest in 1946. The document’s author, Pietro Gerbore, charge d’affaires ad interim of Italy in Bucharest, describes the diplomatic life in the Romanian capital. The diplomats in Bucharest are already grouped into political blocks, each of them not communicating with the other: the block under soviet influence and the block of all Western democracies. The thankless situation of the Apostolic Nuncio in Bucharest is also reflected in the acephalic state of the diplomatic corps in the Romanian capital and highlights the Soviet ambassador’s tendency to take over leadership of the foreign representative corps. The Italian diplomat criticizes the performance of the U.S. representatives in Bucharest, as well as the attitude of the USSR and satellite countries’ diplomats, that have abandoned diplomatic traditions. The most illustrious members of the diplomatic corps accredited in Bucharest are considered ambassadors of Sweden and Denmark.
Key words: diplomatic corps, Bucharest, political blocks, soviet influence

Gelu NEAMŢU « Back
Distrugerea documentelor românilor ardeleni pentru a-i elimina din istorie 1848-1854

Based on historical documents, this article certifies that in order to demonstrate that this territory was inhabited exclusively by the Hungarians, the hungarian historiography tends to ignore and even eliminate the written sources of the Romanians in Transylvania. By ignoring or distorting the truth emerged from these documents, the above mentioned historiography is serving its another purpose: to hide the antiromanian genocide so the Romanians would be more easily expelled from the Transylvanian history. The author encloses 5 genuine samples of how romanian documents were destroyed in Transylvania, during the 1848/1854 events.
Key words: memory, oblivion, documents, destruction, elimination, knowledge, scission, mislead, discouragement, dissolution, purification, genocide.

Nicolae TEŞCULĂ « Back
The Transylvanian Saxon Associationism and the Publications: Siebenbürgische Zeitschrift für Handel, Gewerbe Und Landwirtschaft ( 1865-1868)

This article is an analysis of an economic character publication Siebenbürgische Zeitschrift für Handel, Gewerbe und Landwirtschaft, which appeared in Sibiu, between 1865-1868. Both sections and content of the publication has been analysed. If at the beginning of the century the German population enjoyed the status of a privileged nation, within the Transylvanian constitutional system, after the adoption of dualism, they will become a minority within the Hungarian national state. In order to preserve their identity they will resort to associationism which will develop on a scientific, cultural and economic level. The magazine was addressed to craftsmen, farmers and Saxons traders, its role being to spread new ideas, economical for the society, in order to save the agricultural and industrial Saxon world from bankruptcy regarding the incoming of products from Western Europe.
Key words: Transylvanian Saxons, the nineteenth century, the press, association, economics, the Habsburg Empire.

Veronica TURCUŞ, Şerban TURCUŞ « Back
România legionară şi impactul asupra instituţiilor de cultură. Studiu de caz - Accademia di Romania din Roma

National Legionary State period (14 September 1940 – 14 February 1941) was marked by deep contrasts and conditioned by the military developments of the Second World War, the excess of the time putting his mark on cultural institutions and their representatives. Culture and postgraduate institutions founded in the early ’20s, the Romanian Schools in Fontenay-aux-Roses and Rome were deeply marked by the Romanian Legionary period, the first of them losing the director, the historian Nicolae Iorga, who was assassinated on the night of 26 to 27 November 1940 for his political beliefs and antifascist attitude, while the second undergoing radical changes in management and the government’s propaganda interference because Rome was one of the Axis’ capitals which presented a major concern for the Antonescu government. Emil Panaitescu, professor of Ancient History at the University of Cluj, former student of the Romanian School in Rome and head of the institution from October 1929, was replaced from office on November 1st, 1940 for political reasons by decision of the Legionary Minister Traian Brăileanu. In his place was called the Romanist Dumitru Găzdaru, professor of Romance Languages and Literatures at the University of Iaşi, former student of the Romanian School in Rome and stalwart member of the Legionary Movement. The Panaitescu’s replacement was illegal without the Romanian Academy’s approval, being the Academy the only institution able to propose the retirement of the director. Therefore Emil Panaitescu asked the head of state, General Ion Antonescu, for the suspension of the revocation decision. Thus a fierce battle was fought for the directorship of the School in November-December 1940. Dumitru Găzdaru requested the support of the Council of Ministers’ Vice-president, Horia Sima, that a decision of the Ministry of Education, taken in contrast with the letter of the law, being sustained by Antonescu. In the end Găzdaru has prevailed over and to Panaitescu was offered by General Antonescu moral reparation (awards for work in the service of Romanian culture) and the appointment as cultural adviser to the Romanian Legation at the Vatican. Ideological influence has also affected the organization and daily life of the Romanian School in Rome, which gradually gained dimensions of an office for national propaganda, status enshrined in the new organizational law of the School adopted on May 16th, 1941. This phenomenon was particularly evident during Antonescu’s visit to Rome in November 1940, some of the institution’s scholars being involved in the Legionary propaganda system.
Key words: National Legionary State, propaganda, Romania, culture, institution

Corneliu PINTILESCU « Back
Edificarea vinovăţiei politice între abordări teoretice şi practici judiciare: cazul activităţii Tribunalului Militar Cluj (1948-1956)

The study looks at the mechanisms through which the political guilt was constructed along the stages of the process of preparing criminal files and convicting people by invoking political crimes at the Cluj Military Court from 1948 to 1956. The article has two parts, the first, dealing with the evolution of the concept of „counter-revolutionary conspiracy” and the criminal legislation connected with it and the second, dealing with the stages of the process through which the involved institutions managed different data obtained during criminal investigations in order to convict persons for political reasons. The main hypothesis is that during the aforementioned stages the political guilt was built mainly through discursive means and that the rhetoric of these institutions aimed to legitimize the repressive measures against those labeled as „counter-revolutionaries”.
Key words: political repression, political guilt, communist regime in Romania, military justice.

Gabriel MOISA « Back
Historiography and Politics in Communist Romania. Nicolae Titulescu Case

Nicolae Titulescu’s case and his rehabilitation done by the Romanian historiography in the years of the communist regime represent a model of recycling the past according to the needs of the present. It has become a certainty that, if needed, history could be rewritten according to the current ideological imperatives. This is the teleological approach of the historical writing where the past is seen in terms of the present. Without passing judgements of absolute value on the above mentioned aspects, Nicolae Titulescu’s presence in the main tensioned moments of the Romanian-Soviet relationships of the ‘60s-‘80s, after having been a taboo for the previous two decades, makes us think that Titulescu was firstly instrumentalized for ideological and political purposes, and secondly for reasons that focused on finding out the historical truth.
Key words: Nicolae Titulescu, communism, ideology, historiography, politics

Lauro GRASSI « Back
Un falso diario di Mussolini e una sua discutibile “autopsia”

The author makes some comments on Mussolini‘s Journal. 1939, printed in 2010, published by Bompiani Publishing House in Milan. The reliability of the text is contested with clear evidence of this.
Key words: Italy, Holy See (Santa Sede), Romania, Napoleon III

Dalia BÁTHORY « Back
Pentru o epistemologie a memoriei: conceptualizarea discursului memoriei colective în postcomunism

Memory is a construction and a reconstruction, and it is in this process of reconstruction that we always find the bricks of affective positioning and those schemata. These bricks represent a guarantee that any discourse on memory is an irrational, the cause of to a conflict whenever two opposing memories meet. Moreover, memory is an exploitable emotional resource of which power takes advantage. Therefore, besides all the poetry and the drama in memory studies, a more prosaic approach is needed. In this article I deal with memory as narration and I try to capture its meanings, using Enesto Laclau’s and Chantal Mouffe’s discourse theory as a framework. The case study is focused on two political intervention Romanian and Hungarian leaders, that are mnemonically driven and have an obvious manipulative purpose. The aim is to show how the use of memory can vary from transitional justice to political games of power, and to point that collective memory is a factor that should be a lot more taken into consideration in Political Science and International Relations.
Key words: „mnemopolitics”, populism, Hungary, Romania

Susana ANDEA « Back
Adunările de stări din Transilvania şi comitatele din nord-vestul ţării şi actele emise (sec. XIII-XVI)

The assemblies of the estates from the medieval Transylvania were sometimes called under the personal survey of the Hungarian kings, but they were usually held with the Voivode as the head of the assembly; the equivalent meetings of the county Satu-Mare, Bihor, Zarand, Arad, Cenad were supervised by the palatine of the kingdom. This article attempts to sketch the practice of issuing charters by this institution and to define the distinctive features of its legal documents.
Key words: Transylvania, voievode, palatine, assembly of the Estates, charter.

Ibolya SIPOS « Back
Rolul colonizărilor în dezvoltarea economică a Lugojului în secolul al XVIII-lea

In a Europe of developments and contrasts, the presence of the German people in Lugoj has determined the birth of a society marked by diversity, plurilingualism, cultural and religious tolerance. The colonization has begun with the transformation of the province in a domain of the Crown, and developed sistematically until 1788 during the reign of three kings: Carol the 6th, Maria Teresa and Joseph the 2nd. It had a period of maximum development in the second half of the 18th century. In order to help the small German community located on the left bank of the Timis river, the Order of the Minor Monks was founded in 1718. On the left bank of the Timis river, other German inhabitans settled here in 1718. They lay the foundation of a new community. This small community, taken care of by the administrative office of the Catholic parish, began to lead an ordinary life, to form its own families with their own cycle of life: birth, marriage and death. After an interruption of several years, beginning with the year 1734 the process of the colonization continued. A part of the Germans were assigned to the Lugoj district. But because of the Ottoman – Austrian war between 1737-1739 a large part of the colonizers ran away from Lugoj. In 1740 due to the General Commander Engelshoffen’s approval, other six families from Ardeal district settled in Lugoj. The Emperor Joseph the 2nd continued the politics of his predecessors, of encouraging the colonial politics in Banat. During his reign, the number of the Swabian increased in the German Lugoj. It was found that at a census from 1786 the settlement had 1446 inhabitants with 203 houses. His orders regarding the administration of Banat had as a target a certain balance and a good cohabitation between people with a different ethnicity. The politics was later applied to Lugoj in the 18th century.
Key words: Lugoj, colonizations, economic development, noblemen, the Catholic Church, district

Iosif Marin BALOG « Back
Economic Policy of Habsburgs in Transylvania in the mid-nineteenth Century. Significance and Effects of Introducing the Telegraph

This study comes to expand the consideration formulated by the author on the issue of the introduction of telegraph in Transylvania several years ago. Basically, the field of telegraphy, along with that of railways, was one of the most thoroughly regulated industries, as in the majority of cases it was exclusively supported by the State. In this context, the analysis of legislation pertaining to the field may provide examples that show the full extent of the State’s involvement in telegraphy. One can state, in the case of Transylvania too, that in a first phase, the State promoted a legislation that provided the framework for the construction and extension of telegraph lines. A second phase of state interventionism in this direction was characterized by successive measures meant to reduce tariffs and improve service quality, along with other severe measures to protect lines through heavy punishment against attempts to destroy the lines, manipulate messages improperly or disregard the secrecy of correspondence, etc. On the background outlined above, Transylvania was also connected to the telegraph network of the Habsburg Monarchy. The introduction of the telegraph in Transylvania was firstly determined by administrative necessities and, at a secondary level, by economic considerations. Therefore, examining the significance of economic policies of the Austrian State in Transylvania in the period 1850-1867, one notices that at this level, just as in the case of other indicators under study, the State acted through an interventionist policy manifested, as in the field of legislation, directly and effectively in a domain that produced concrete effects at the level of administrative and economic life, measurable at various levels.
Key words: History of Telegraph, Transylvania, Modernization, Habsburg Monarchy

Mara MĂRGINEAN « Back
Mobilitatea socială în oraşul Hunedoara. 1945-1968

Between 1945 and 1968 the population of the Romanian city Hunedoara grew from 7,000 to 70,000 people. As less than fifteen percent were born within the city’s limits, the other eighty five were incoming migrants originating in all parts of the country. At the core of this mobility process there were placed both practical and ideological concerns. For the large mass of the people, the newly built urban space would open up possibilities for better living conditions given the numerous and highly remunerated jobs in the steel plant in the city. For the politicians, instead, the ideological rhetoric claiming that the development of the heavy industry would grant the country’s economic independence fuelled a complicated program aiming to modernize both the space and the people inhabiting it. Dwelling upon archival documents and employing the theoretical model of development as expression of ultramodernism, coined by James C. Scott, this study approaches the labour force’s mobility towards Hunedoara from three main overlapping perspectives: the ideological grounding of the economic program, the bureaucratic involvement into the making of the site, and the population’s reaction to it as stated in the dynamic of the socioprofessional structure of the city.
Key words: Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Hunedoara, migration, steel industry, bureaucracy.

Lucian NASTASĂ « Back
Cazul Ionescu-Caion. Câteva precizări aparent nesemnificative

The following article poses as an immersion into the accusation of plagiarism of the well known personality Ion Luca Caragiale, accusation made public by the former student, Constantin AL. Ionescu Caion. As a consequence of accusing an important character of the national culture, following that process, the student would suffer the stigmatization of a raging society because he brought dishonour to national culture values.
Key words: Caragiale, conflict between generation, Ionescu-Caion, plagiarism

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