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Cuprinsul ANUARULUI Nr. LI din 2012



ANTROPONIMIE MEDIEVALĂ
Şerban TURCUŞAntroponimele din Transilvania în secolul al XII-lea. Lista dependenţilor prepoziturii de AradPDF
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Adinel DINCĂAntroponimie şi etnie în Transilvania medievală (Epoca angevină)PDF
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PRINCIPATUL TRANSILVANIEI ÎNTRE MĂRIRE ŞI DECĂDERE
Susana ANDEAAutoritatea princiară între reglementări juridice şi puterea stărilor. Domnia lui Mihai ApafiPDF
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Livia MAGINAPrerogativle juridice ale judelui sătesc în legislaţia secolului al XVII-lea în TransilvaniaPDF
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Florin Nicolae ARDELEANSteaguri de mercenari străini la curtea lui Mihai Apafi (1663-1684)PDF
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Veronica TURCUŞPrincipatul Transilvaniei în publicaţiile interbelice ale Şcolii Române din Roma (secolul al XVII-lea)PDF
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ISTORIE, RELIGIE ŞI IDEOLOGIE
Remus CÂMPEANUBiserica unită din Transilvania şi relaţiile ei cu Arhiepiscopia de Esztergom la începuturil unirii religioase, în lumina cercetărilor recente ale Fundaţiei Pro OrientePDF
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Octavian SILIVESTRUThe Jewish Question "resolved": The anti-Semitic discourse in Romania after the Congress of Berlin (1878-1879)PDF
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Mihai A. PANUThe concept of ethnic elite in the interwar Romanian eugenic discoursePDF
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Florin ABRAHAMIstoriografie şi memorie socială în România după 1989PDF
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Grigore Claudiu MOLDOVANSovietization of Historiography during Cultural Staklinism. New PerspectivesPDF
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Oana-Cristina POPAMyths and Symbols in the Wars of Ex-Yugoslavia (1991-1999)PDF
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ISTORIE ŞI DIPLOMAŢIE
Ela COSMADiplomaţie şi război. Competiţia austro-rusă şi primele tentative consulare în Serbia lui KaradordePDF
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Cristian-Constantin ŞIPEŢEANEconomic and political relations between Romania and African countries during the totalitarian regime (1965-1980)PDF
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ISTORIE, CULTURĂ ŞI ELITE
Irina NASTASĂ-MATEIEmil Cioran în peregrinatio academica, 1933-1945PDF
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Dragoş SDROBIŞElitele şi Universitatea în România interbelică. Problema "şomajului intelectual"PDF
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Andrei Florin SORALa sélection scolaire des membres du corps préfectoral roumain, 1918-1940PDF
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Zoltán GYÖRKEPrefecţii Clujului: Analiză prosopografică PDF
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Vasile PUŞCAŞMihail Manoilescu - Economic Thought and Economic RealityPDF
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Veronica TURCUŞAvatarurile Academiei Române sub comunism. Relaţiile cu mediul academic italian: Giuseppe Lugli - membru al Academiei RomânePDF
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DEZBATERI
Miodrag MATICKITentaţia lui Homo Europaeus de Victor Neumann din perspective culturii sârbo-croatePDF
RECENZII
Sergiu Matveev, Procesele etno-culturale din spaţiul carpato-nistrean în secolele II-XIV. Istoriografia sovietică, Chişinău, Edit. Pontos, 2009, 230 p., 5 tab. (Vitalie Bârcă)PDF
Hrs. Johann Marte, Viorel Ioniţă, Iacob Mârza, Laura Stanciu, Ernst Christoph Suttner, Die Union der Rumänen Siebenbürgens mit der Kirche von Rom band I von den anfängen bis 1701 - Unirea românilor transilvăneni cu Biserica Romei vol I de la începuturi până la anul 1701, Bucureşti, Editura Enciclopedică, 2010, 335 p. (Gheorghe Naghi)PDF
Ela Cosma, Saşi, austrieci, slavi în Transilvania şi Banat (Biografii de secol XIX şi din vremea revoluţiei paşoptiste), Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti, 2009, 468 p. (Gheorghe Naghi)PDF
Angela Jianu, A circle of Friends. Romanian Revolutionaries and Political Exile, 1840-1859 (Cercul de prieteni. Revoluţionarii români şi exilul politic, 1840-1859), Balkan Studies Libraries, Brill, London-Boston, 2011, 382 p. (Victor Neumann) PDF
Dumitru Suciu, Soldaţi fără uniformă: figuri de ţărani români ai Landsturmului românesc şi starea protopopiatelor ortodoxe din Transilvania după Războiul Naţional din 1848-1849, Editura Argonaut, Cluj-Napoca, 2011, 313 p. PDF
Gelu Neamţu, "Religia română" în Transilvania 1848-1918, Editura Argonaut, Cluj-Napoca, 2010, 222 p. (Ela Cosma) PDF
Svetlana SUVEICĂ, Basarabia în primul deceniu interbelic (1918-1928). Modernizare prin reforme, Chişinău, Edit. Portos, 2010, 360 p.(Ludovic Báthory)PDF
Vadim Guzun, foamete sovietică 1926-1936, Baia-Mare, Editura Universităţii de Nord, 2011, 380p. (Marcela Sălăgean)PDF
Simbolurile naţionale ale Republicii Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Instituţia Publică "Enciclopedia Moldovei", Chişinău, 2011, 636 p. Republica Moldova, Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Institutul de Studii Enciclopedice. Chişinău, 2011, 800 p. (Stelian Mândruţ)PDF
William Taubman, Khrushchev. The man, his era, London, Free Press, 2005 (Emanuel Copilaş)PDF
Stephane Courtois, Comunism şi totalitarism., Bucureşti, Polirom, 2011, 278 pag. (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
Hans Erich Bödeker (Hrs.), Begriffsgeschichte, Diskursgeschichte, Metapherngeschichte (Istoria conceptuală, istoria discursului, istoria metaforei), Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen, 2002 (Cristian Roiban)PDF
Javier Fernandez Sebastian, Juan Francisco Fuentes (coord.), Diccionario politico y social del siglo XIX espagnol; Diccionario politico y social del siglo XX espagnol, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2002-2003, 772 p; 2008, 1395 p. (Victor Neumann)PDF
NOTE BIBLIOGRAFICE
Eşanu Andrei, Eşanu Valentina, Mănăstirea Voroneţ. Istorie. Cultură. Spiritualitate. Chişinău, "Pontos", 2010, 384 pag. (Istorii şi Documente Necunoscute-IDN. Monografii. M 4) (Lidia Gross)PDF
Agachi Alexei, Istoria mănăstirii Hâncu (1677-2010). Chişinău, "Pontos", 2010, 245 pag. (Istorii şi Documente Neunoscute - IDN. Monografii. M 1) (Lidia Gross)PDF
Zsoldos Attila, Magyarország világi archontológiája 1000-1301. Budapest, MTA Történettudományi Intézete, 2011 (História Könyvtár. Kronológiák, Adattárak.11), 382 p. (Lidia Gross)PDF
Horváth Richárd, Itineraria regis Matthiae Corvini et reginae Beatricis de Aragonia (1458-/1476/-1490) Budapest, MTA Történettudomány Intézete, 2011 (História Könyvtár. Kronológiák, Adattárak. 12 - Subsidium ad historiam medii aevii Hungariae inquirendam. 2), 181 p. (Lidia Gross)PDF
Szögi László, Varga Júlia, A szegedi tudományegyetem és elõdei története. I rész A Báthory-egyetemtõl a Kolozsvári Tudományegyetemig 1581-1872 Szeged, Egyetemi Kiadó, 2011, 384 p. (Adrian Gabriel Pop)PDF
Nussbächer, Gernot, Aus Urkunden und Chroniken. Band 10. Kreis Hermannstadt. Erster Teil: A-Ha. Kronstadt, Aldus Verlag, 2012, 255 pag. (Lidia Gross)PDF
Rainer Slotta, Volker Wollmann, Ion Dordea, Silber und Salz in Siebenbürgen. Bd.:10 Gold aus dem "Goldenem Viereck". Der Bergbau in Brad, Offenburg (Baia de Arie?/Offenbanya), Băiţa (Boicza/Pernseifen) und Baia de Criş (Altenburg/Kõrösbanya) (Ludovic Báthory) PDF
Venera Achim, Viorel Achim (coord.), Minorităţile etnice în România în secolul al XIX-lea. Bucureşti, Editura Academiei Române, 316 p. (Vlad Popovici) PDF
Koszta István, Nem (csak) Erdély volt a tét. II. Mária román királynõ párizsi követsége 1919. Budapest, Kárpátia Stúdió, 2011, 243 p. (Adrian Gabriel Pop)PDF
Béla Borsi-Kálmán, Megközelítések. Tanulmányok a magyar-román (román-magyar) kapcsolattörténetrõl és identitásról (Abordări. Studii despre identititatea şi relaţiile româno-maghiare/maghiaro-române). Budapest, Lucidus Kiadó, 2011 (Kisebbségkutatás Könyvek), 219 p. (Levente Nagy)PDF
Apostol Stan, Istorie şi Politică în România Comunistă. Bucureşti, Ed. Curtea Veche, 2010. 421 p. (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
Sergiu Musteaţă, Igor Caşu, coord, Fără termen de prescripţie. Aspecte ale investigării crimelor comunismului în Europa. Chişinău 2011, 792 p. (Grigore Moldovan)PDF
Lucian Nastasă (ed.), Armenii din Nord-Vestul Transilvaniei în anii instaurării Comunismului (1945-1953). Mărturii documentare. Cluj-Napoca, Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnoculturală, 2008, 320 p. (Ludovic Báthory)PDF
Volker Wollmann, Patrimoniul preindustrial şi industrial în România. Vol. I, Sibiu-Hermannstadt, Edit. Honterus, 2010, 356 p. (Ludovic Báthory)PDF
Anatol Petrencu, Istoria contemporană: Studii, materiale, atitudini. Chişinău, Editura Cartdidact, 2011, 580 p. (Stelian Mândruţ) PDF
Elena Mannová (coord.), Scurtă istorie a Slovaciei. Traducere din limba slovacă şi indice de Eva Mârza, Radu Mârza, Bucureşti, Editura Enciclopedică, 2011,. 475 p. (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Silviu Miloiu, Florin Anghel, Veniamin Ciobanu, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Istoria Lituaniei. Târgovişte, Editura Cetatea de Scaun, 2011, 300 p. (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Silviu Miloiu (coord.), Florin Anghel, Dalia Bukeleviciute, Alexandru Ghişa, Ramojus Kraujelis, Bogdan-Alexandru Schipor, The Romanian -Lithuanin Relations Diplomatik Documents (12919-1944). Târgovişte, Editura Cetatea de Scaun, 2011, 244 p (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
REVISTA REVISTELOR
Revista de Istorie Socială, VIII-IX (2003-2004), Institutul Român de Studii Strategice şi Facultatea de Istorie de la Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iaşi, Iaşi, 2006, 677 p.; X-XII (2005-2007), Iaşi, 2009, 614 p. (Ela Cosma) PDF
Revista de Istorie Socială. XIII-XV, 2008-2010, Iaşi, 2011, 515 pp. (AttilaVarga)PDF
Pontes . Review of south east european studies. Moldova State University. Vol. 5. Chişinău, 2009, 352 p. (Stelian Mândruţ) PDF
Anuar 2010. Zrenianin, Edit. Institutului de Cultură al Românilor din Voivodina, 2011, 297 pag. (Lidia .Gross)PDF
Revista română de istorie a presei. Vol. IV, 2010, nr.2; Vol. V, 2011, nr.1.; Asociaţia română de istorie a presei. Cluj-Napoca, 212, 212 p. (St.Mândruţ)PDF
Studii şi cercetări. Banatul trecut istoric şi cultural, Novi Sad, Editura ICRV- Editura Fundaţiei Zreanin, 2010 (Lakatos Artur) PDF
Synergies Roumanie, Revue du GERFLINT, Cluj-Napoca, 2011, nr. 6, 260 p. (Cristian Şipeţeanu)PDF
Piramida. Revistă de cultură al românilor din Voivodina. Numărul 1, anul I., iarna 2010-2011 (Lakatos Artur) PDF
Az Egyetemi Könyvtár Évkönyvei XIV-XV, Budapest, 2011, 416 p. (Adrian Gabriel Pop)PDF
VIAŢA ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
Lucrările Celei de a IX-a Reuniuni a Comisiei Mixte de Istorie Româno-Slovace (Alba Iulia, 19-23 septembrie 2011) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Conferinţa Internaţională "Recent Studie son Past and Present: New Sources, New Methods or a New Public?" (Bucureşti, 25-27 septembrie 2011) (Cristian Şipeţeanu)PDF
Atelier de lucru. Paleografie aplicată. Sec. XVIII-XIX în Europa Centrală şi Răsăriteană. Atelier de lucru, Cluj, 22-23 noiembrie 2011 (Ela Cosma)PDF
Simpozionul ştiinţific: Centenar Mihail P. Dan şi Francisc Pall (Cluj-Napoca, 23 noiembrie 2011) (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF
Activitatea ştiinţifică a Institutului de Istorie "George Bariţiu" în anul 2011 (Susana Andea)PDF


Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Şerban Turcuş « Back
Antroponimele din Transilvania în secolul al XII-lea. Lista dependenţilor prepoziturii de Arad

One of the most interesting documents in Romanian historiography, with specific reference to Transylvania, is a strengthening of legal property of Arad Prepositura (Latin term referring to leading clerical position in different religious congregations), legislated by Hungarian King Emeric II, document placed by the editors of collection "Documents regarding History of Romania" sometime in 1202-1203. In fact this is an acknowledgment of property and people depending of Arad Prepositura, based on the document issued in 1177 by King Bella III.
There have been registered 373 anthroponomy units of which proudly our wine historiography extracts 164 names. But these owners brought and got involved in most cases one, two, three, four or five individuals that were integrated in the category of dependents of Arad Prepositura. The total number of reviewed dependents is 747 units. Basically other 374 people are not nominated, but are enrolled in the dependence of eclezial structure.
Anthroponomical register of the document of 1177 is clearly "multiethnic" and multicultural. Record names looks over anthroponomy from almost every corner of Christianitas in its European areas and from Commonwealth's space of Constantinopolitan management and some units that are descendants of migrants onomastic with Asian origins of the time.
The Christian anthroponomy revealed by the document legislated in 1177 and copied in 1202-1203 are in alphabetical order: Achilleus, Adrian, Ambreus, Amen, Andreas-Andrei (2), Benedict (2), Beniamin, Boson, Clemens, Cosma (4), Dumitru, Eliseu (2), Filip (2), Gervasiu, Grigore, Iacob (3), Ilarie, Ioachim (2), Ioan (13), Iordan (2), Kilian, Marcel (2), Martin (2), Mathias, Mica, Michael (2), Nicolaus (5 with diminutives), Oliver, Othmar, Otons (2), Paul (7), Petru (14), Sanctus, Saul (4), Sebastian, Semen, Simon, Stefan (4), Toma, Vitalius, Zaharia, Zaheu (2).
Christian names are 42 units while the name unfrequented in the Christian calendar sums up a figure of 271 relevant units. If for the names having the custody of the Church, as I have found many uses with 14 repetitions for Peter, 2 repetitions for Andrew, Benedict, Michael or Zacchaeus etc. meaning 19 names that are multiplied by their carriers, in the other name category of the 271 anthroponyms repeats only Boz (2), Forcos (2), Fulcus (2), Pousa (3), Teca (3). It can be seen without constraints and reluctance that anthroponyms unapproved by the Church have a richness and a numeric exoticism that will only repeat again in Oradea`s Register, afterwards with few exceptions being swept by the ecclesiastical authorities of the list of names worthy to be used in baptism.
This document sets our position at a time when Transylvania was not reached in any dimension by the onomastic revolution and Christian names (of Greek, Latin, Jewish vetero and New Testament) are facing strong dynamics with the tribal names and with those unsupported by Church.
Keywords: Anthroponomy, Prepositura, dependents, Arad, Onomastic Revolution

Adinel DINCĂ « Back
Antroponimie şi etnie în Transilvania medievală (Epoca angevină)

The present study aims to determine and circumscribe the main research directions to be followed in the study of proper names of the Romanian and Saxon settlers before 1400 in Transylvania, with a special regard on isolating the specific anthroponomical elements, the analysis criteria and the limits of such an approach. Current studies dedicated to the Saxon and Romanian anthroponomical funds have been focused on the family names of higher class individuals, especially members of the clergy; the analysis of names was based without exception on case studies or "monographs" of some particular anthroponyms or assessments made with respect to practices that determine the denomination within a family, or was intended to provide additional evidence to a specific historical argument. The author takes a new look on medieval documents containing Saxon and Romanian names in Transylvania, formulating a number of considerations and explanations on the structure of Transylvanian names in the XIVth century (single or double), the sequence of names in the family, the relationship between names and social structure or area of practice and anthroponomical geography. Such a renewed view of the anthroponomical Transylvanian theme arises a number of issues that either require review and nuance, or a more intense step on investigating the factors of influence that have shaped the anthroponomical identity of medieval Transylvanians.
Keywords: Medieval Transylvania, Anthroponomy, Ethnicity

Susana ANDEA « Back
Autoritatea princiară între reglementări juridice şi puterea stărilor. Domnia lui Mihai Apafi

The present paper offers an analysis regarding the authority of Michael Appafi, prince of Transylvania, in comparison to Gabriel Bethlen's and George Rakoczi's I. The political context and the terms imposed by the Estates after their ascension to the throne are compared gradually, as well as the economical and military aspects and the princely authority in relation to the Transylvanian Estates. This approach allows a more nuanced reflection on the longest reign in the history of the Principality of Transylvania (Michael Appafi, 1661-1690). It is considered that only the final part of his reign (particularly after 1683) was the time when the group of nobles surrounding the prince imposes its own policy and influence, as a result of a changing balance of power between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires.
Key words: Transylvania, Michael Appafi, Gabriel Bethlen, George Rákoczi, princely authority

Livia MAGINA « Back
Prerogativle juridice ale judelui sătesc în legislaţia secolului al XVII-lea în Transilvania

The restoring of an institution with a long period of existence as that of iudex pagi assumes to analyze and expose the institution functions as its are reveal in the legislation of that period. Out of the many functions that the judge was in charge of for village (economic, religious, etc.) the legal attributions underlying the institutional body. The main corpuses of this period, Approbatae Constitutiones, Compilatae Constitutiones create the legislative framework to continue the existence and functioning of this institution, but also the corpuses of the XVIth century are very important. Among the legal duties is catching criminals, keeping animals lost, presentation in court as a witness in a lot of cases, from issues of moral behaviour to the drawings of the borders, the cases between the villagers or between them and the master or between locals and foreigners. A special mention is that the judge has a form of payment according to the value of the cases judged in the village court. Considering this attribution and the other aspects of the functioning of institution, is emerging the importance of iudex pagi in his community.
Key words: iudex pagi, legislation, judicial powers, Principality of Transylvania in XVIIth century

Florin Nicolae ARDELEAN « Back
Steaguri de mercenari străini la curtea lui Mihai Apafi (1663-1684)

The military innovations of the early modern period had a considerable influence on the Transylvanian principality. In the Sixteenth and Seventeenth century most European armies had compact groups of foreign soldiers, recruited for their efficiency and their ability to use the new weapons of that period. For similar reasons the Transylvanian rulers employed foreign soldiers, usually as a part of their guard. Although he was not considered a strong prince, with remarkable political or military accomplishments, Michael Apafi had a significant group of mercenaries at his disposal. According to the official documents of the princely court from the period 1663-1684, the army of the court consisted of: two units of German soldiers, one unit of Seimeni (Walachians, Moldavians and Serbs), one unit of Hungarian soldiers, three units of Polish soldiers (the so called French companies) and 10-13 of Hungarian cavalry units. Maintaining this small standing army, in spite the high costs it involved, is a poof of Apafi's intention to restore the political influence and prestige of Transylvania.
Key words: Transylvania, principality, mercenaries, cavalry, infantry, Germans, Seimeni, Hungarians

Veronica TURCUŞ « Back
Principatul Transilvaniei în publicaţiile interbelice ale Şcolii Române din Roma (secolul al XVII-lea)

Romanian schools in France and Rome were founded at the beginning of the 1920's as post-graduate learning institutions intended for the specialization of young stipendiaries in such domains as Ancient History and Archeolgy, Medieval and Modern History, Auxiliary Sciences, Romanic Philology, Art History, but also Architecture and Fine Arts. Archival research has held an important role both in the study programmes of the Romanian School in France led by Nicolae Iorga and in those established in the Romanian School in Rome by the founding headmaster Vasile Pârvan. In the inter-war period the Romanian School from the capital of Italy had a permanent contingent of 3-4 stipendiaries, all coming from the four university centers of the whole Romania, who had archival research in progress, targeted on the subject of Oriental Romanity. The research programme set by headmaster Pârvan was a coherent one, of positivistic inspiration and it was very strictly organized from a chronological point of view. The results of the research, conducted mainly at Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Archivio della Sacra Congregazione di Propaganda Fide or in a series of funds belonging to Roman nobility were published in the beginning in "Ephemeris Dacoromana. Annuario della Scuola Romena di Roma", a periodical which first appeared in 1925, including the works ellaborated by the first generation of stipendiaries in 1923 and later on appeared in the School's archivistical yearbook titled "Diplomatarium Italicum. Documenti raccolti negli archivi italiani", a bulletin founded in 1926. The documents edited in the yearbooks of the Romanian School in Rome by a series of stipendiaries of the institution such as Claudiu Isopescu, G. Călinescu, V. Vasiliu, N. Buta, I. Moga, A. Mesrobeanu, C. Radu, D. Găzdaru, M. Berza, A. Decei, Gh. Vinulescu, F. Pall, offer a perspective on the situation in the Romanian countries, such as it could be observed from the Roman Curia, based on information gathered by Catholic missionaries, by the provincial Jesuits, by the archbishops in the area, by the nuntius in Vienna or in Poland. From the same perspective, the documents edited in the interar period in the yearbooks of the Romanian School in Rome, offer us an image of the evolution of the Transylvanian Principality in the XVII-th century, with more generous information concerning the years when the principality played an important role in the political and military evolutions in the area, especially in the context of the anti-Ottoman empire actions stimulated by the Habsburg empire and under the patronage of the Holy See. The overview on Transilvanian Principality in the XVII-th century, such as it emerges from the documents published in the inter-war period by the archivistic-stipendiaries of the Romanian School in Rome in the respective yearbooks, is noted from the Roman Church's point of view, from that of Vatican authorities based on the nuntius' information and those of the Counter Reformation agents in the area, mirroring especially those aspects in Transylvanian evolution which interested the Holly See: the unfolding - thoroughly noted - of the military and political events in the principality, on the background of numerous conflicts in the region and within the general context of the anti-Ottoman policy maintained by the Apostolic See. Also noted was the confessional situation, set against the background of the Counter Reformation and the interest regarding its progress in the area.
Key words: Romanian School in Rome, archivistic, Catholic missionaries, Transylvanian Principality, Counter Reformation

Remus CÂMPEANU « Back
Biserica unită din Transilvania şi relaţiile ei cu Arhiepiscopia de Esztergom la începuturil unirii religioase, în lumina cercetărilor recente ale Fundaţiei Pro Oriente

For over ten years, Pro Oriente Foundation in Vienna included among its historical research projects the issue of the Religious Union of the Romanians from Transylvania with the Church of Rome. This initiative belonged to Professor Ernst Christoph Suttner and it was extremely important because, as it is known, Religious Union of the Romanians with the Church of Rome gave rise to a strong and long controversy between historians and theologians in Romania, according to their religious affiliation. Until today, it was not formulated a common historical point of vue on this issue and, therefore, Pro Oriente Foundation proposed to organize some conferences and to publish several volumes which brings together common opinions tied to this topic, belonging to Romanian Orthodox and Greek-Catholic specialists. Several historians and theologians from abroad were to rule on the subject. This study presents only one of the many aspects concerning the Religious Union that Pro Oriente Foundation has investigated in recent years, namely whether the first Greek Catholic Bishop of Transylvania was or not invested again as a bishop in the first stage of Religious Union by its new Catholics prelats from Hungary and Austria, when after, early in his career, was appointed in Bucharest as Transylvanian Orthodox bishop by the hierarchy of the Orthodox Church. As it is shown in this study, the problem is difficult to be clarified even by the recent researches, due to the lack of the archival documents and because of powerful historical and political sensitivities that Religious Union continues to generate.
Key words: Transylvania, Romanians, Religious Union, historiographical disputes.

Octavian SILIVESTRU « Back
The Jewish Question "resolved": The anti-Semitic discourse in Romania after the Congress of Berlin (1878-1879)

In the light of the recent theoretical developments on 19th -century anti-Semitism, this article aims to offer a synthesis and a critical reconsideration of the corpus of Romanian anti-Semitic discourses of the late 1870s, mainly focusing on the public and political debate on the legal situation of Romanian Jews following the Congress of Berlin. Building on a wide range of Romanian sources pertaining to the Jewish question - including newspaper articles, pamphlets, parliamentary and electoral speeches - the study offers a thorough contextualization of the main discursive strategies employed in the public debates and attempts to outline the roles played by anti-Semitic discourses in shaping the local political balance of power, the sense of national cohesion as well as the specific cultural representations of Western Europe and the modern values it represented.
Key words: anti-Semitism; nationalism; Jewish question; modernity; politics

Mihai A. PANU « Back
The concept of ethnic elite in the interwar Romanian eugenic discourse

This paper attempts to generally deal with the problem of national identity in interwar Romania, focusing primarily on the mechanisms of ethnic representation in the eugenic scientific discourse as part of this identity construction. In this respect a major objective of this analysis is to answer the following question: What is the contribution of the Romanian eugenic school in generating the national-identity related concepts such as "ethnic elite"? The concept of "ethnic elite" is symptomatic and decisive for understanding the key factors in the process of national identity formation in 20th century Romania.
Key words: ethnic elite, eugenics, nationalism, ballast minorities, interwar Romania

Florin ABRAHAM « Back
Istoriografie şi memorie socială în România după 1989

The research aims to answer the question "How does historiography influence the formation of social memory of a community?" The case study aims to analyze democratic memory in Romania after 1989. The research follows two stages. First, we analyze the main features of the historiography of the communist regime: dominant ideology (anticommunism), thematic structure, dominant stylistic features, inventory and estimation of its dissemination and circulation. Second, we study the evolution of public sentiment towards the communist regime in Romania using information provided by surveys of public opinion in relation to the socio-demographic characteristics of the population. The main conclusion of the research is that historiography is a product of elite, which has only minimal effects on social memory.
Key words: Romania, historiography, social memory, communism, democracy

Grigore Claudiu MOLDOVAN « Back
Sovietization of Historiography during Cultural Staklinism. New Perspectives

This study will adress Stalinism as the 'revolution imposed' on the countries of East and Central Europe and in doing so it will analyze the cultural aspects of the process, questioning its regional policies and practicies, with specific attention to historical writing. It will examine the dialectics between intention and implementation arguing the priority of internal (local) actors of the process, offering specific refference to the Romanian case and to aspects of its deployment in a specific history production centre, namely the Cluj History Institute.
Key words: Stalinism, Sovietization, Cultural revolution, Historiography, Model.

Oana-Cristina POPA « Back
Myths and Symbols in the Wars of Ex-Yugoslavia (1991-1999)

The Balkans have long been a land of myths and symbols that have influenced the actions of ordinary people and political leaders alike. The recent bloody wars of the former Yugoslavia after 1990 have brought to live ancient legends, as well as contemporary myths used as tools to justify and fuel etnic hatred and conflict. Today, as the region moves towards European integration, new symbols arose, some ready to replace the old ones. Along with them, the Balkans have a real chance to move out of the darkness into a brighter future.
Key words: myth, symbol, former Yugoslavia, war, ethnic conflict, Balkans

Ela COSMA « Back
Diplomaţie şi război. Competiţia austro-rusă şi primele tentative consulare în Serbia lui Karadorde

In their expansionist competition, both Russia and Austria alternated their alliances with Karadorde's Serbians, engaged in the conflict against the Ottoman Porte, with periods of retreat of their support. The oscillating attitude of the two great powers is to be explained by the current necessities and the pursuance of their own interests. Like the Romanian Principalities, Serbia too became an object of rivalries between the imperial states, wishing to impose here their influence or domination. During the first Serbian uprising (1804-1813), Russia exerted a contradictory attitude on military and diplomatical level. Serbia instead displayed a constant sympathy, regardless of any disappointments: Czartoryski's refusal to Matija Nenadovic's embassy (1804), the failure of the first Tsarist diplomatic mission lead by the hostile Rodofinikin (1807-1810). But Russia also sent enthusiastic emissaries: Isaev and Paulucci (1807), Zuccato (1810), Marko Ivelic (1812). The uprisal defeat found the Serbians alone in their confrontation with the Ottoman enemy, which would eventually shake their reliance on the military power and political will of the Tsarist Empire to support them. Neither showed Austria more compassion and correctness in the bilateral relations with Karadorde's Serbians. The positive side consisted in Austria's modernization efforts in Serbia, especially in terms of market economy and Western civilization model. The negative side is linked with the Habsburg Empire's interests, the promotion of the status quo in the Balkans, with the sacrifice of the smaller nations striving for statal autonomy. In fact, the Serbians perceived Austria's timing game as an endless line of betrayals. Rodofinikin's mission to Belgrade determined Austria's reaction to propose a consul as well. The first Habsburg attempt in 1809-1810 to institutionalize the Austro-Serbian relations by creating an Austrian consulate went hand in hand with the Monarchy's endeavour of taking over the role of a mediator in the Turkish-Serbian conflict. The general commander of the Slavonian and Syrmian military border, baron Simbschen, was charged with diplomatic powers in the Serbian cause. But Simbschen's negociations failed and he was dismissed. The espionage networks built up by Rodofinikin and Simbschen fell together with their initiators. Equally secret, the projects for a Serbian constitution elaborated by the two empires - projects based on the set up of the Romanian Principalities and of the Austrian military border - reveal other thoughtful means envolved in the HabsburgTsarist competition for winning Serbia. Both the question of the Serbian constitution and that of the establishment of foreign consulates in Belgrade were to be solved in the fourth decade of the 19th century, when Russia and Austria again assumed a major contribution.
Key words: Austro-Russian competition, Karadorde's Serbia, diplomacy, consular attempts

Cristian-Constantin ŞIPEŢEAN « Back
Economic and political relations between Romania and African countries during the totalitarian regime (1965-1980)

Present article is trying to analyses the transformations of the African society, the interactions in the globalized world, and the mutations of the political structures. The appeal to the history is used for a better understanding of the contemporary evolutions of the African continent and society, in a world where interdependent relations have a greater value then national trends or state politics.
Key words: Sub-Saharian Africa, History of Africa, Communism, International Relations, Development.

Irina NASTASĂ-MATEI « Back
Emil Cioran în peregrinatio academica, 1933-1945

The years of Emil Cioran's intellectual formation, coinciding with those of "initiation" in the political ideologies of the time, have a major significance in the biography of the Romanian philosopher, and remained largely unknown until now. Peregrinatio academica seems to have had a fundamental impact on his personal and academic development. This article provides new information on the period between 1933 and 1944, when Cioran was a student in the Third Reich and in France. We focus on the way in which the philosopher managed to get the scholarships, the bureaucracy related to them, as well as the cultural and ideological influences the study and living in these contries had on Cioran. We also aim to capture aspects of daily life of Cioran in Germany and France, his relations with various personalities of the time and the image the young philosopher had in the Romanian, German and French cultural millieu.
Key words: Emil Cioran, Peregrinatio academica, the Third Reich, Fascism, Propaganda, Cultural exchange.

Dragoş SDROBIŞ « Back
Elitele şi Universitatea în România interbelică. Problema "şomajului intelectual"

The superior education in the modern Romania was an important institution in leading to social change by promoting a new social identity: the intellectual. Nevertheless, the switch of the superior education into mass education after 1918 and the imbalance between education and economy requests provoked an overproduction of licensed youth. This symptom became more visible due to the great economic depression, that led to intellectual unemployment. That is the reason why a new type of education had been promoted: the directed education. More than that, the state's concern regarding this problem is obvious in 1937, when a census of the intellectual unemployers is accomplished. Meanwhile, it is reasonable to create a causal link between intellectual unemployment and the ascent of the nationalistic political trends in the 1930s, as it was the legionary movement.
Key words: university, intellectual unemployment, directed education, intellectual unemployers census.

Andrei Florin SORA « Back
La sélection scolaire des membres du corps préfectoral roumain, 1918-1940

This paper presents the educational background of the agents of the central power in the territory ('the prefectoral corps') between 1918 and 1940. The subjects of our analysis are the prefects and theirs subordinates (the 'subprefect' and the 'pretor'). The purpose is to study the demands of the State concerning the formation of these civil servants and the value of the higher education in their administrative career. After the First World War, the number of students and higher education diplomas had increased but this accumulation of human capital and the improvement of the higher education system are not always noticeable in the prefectoral body formation, characterized by geographic and generational disparities. A particular feature is that a lot of prefects drew their political legitimacy on prestigious professions: lawyer, high school professor, medicine doctor, military officer or priest.
Key words: interwar Romania, higher education, civil servants formation, prefectoral corps

Zoltán GYÖRKE « Back
Prefecţii Clujului: Analiză prosopografică

This study presents data about social origin, life, education, intellectual profile, political and administrative career of Cluj prefects from interbelic period. The prefects of Cluj county were complex personalities. They followed different university studies, from theology or medicine to law and political science. Nevertheless, they had a legal thinking, 13 prefects among 15 having law degree. The government representatives in the territory also stood out as brave soldiers, journalists, famous doctors or lawyers, were members of cultural associations or charities. Almost without exception, Cluj prefects were born in Transylvania and Banat. At appointment, the mean age of the prefects was 42 years. Latter, just because they were prefects, the communist regime persecuted and condemned them.
Key words: Administration, Cluj, the Interwar Period

Vasile PUŞCAŞ « Back
Mihail Manoilescu - Economic Thought and Economic Reality

Endowed with an Anglo-Saxon analytic spirit, German logical rigor, and Latin imagination, Mihail Manoilescu was one of the most distinguished Romanian thinkers of the 20th century. He was not a "narrow-minded" economist, but rather enjoyed the great advantage of reaching out way beyond the sphere of his competencies. Manoilescu's economic theories are infused with political and social ideas, at times featuring a "prophetic" classical allure. In a sense, Manoilescu is the forerunner of postwar theories on global trade and one of the few Romanian economists known and acknowledged by prestigious schools of economic thought in the world. He noted the "market distortions" and offered solutions that, even if they were not fully accepted, did foster new research to find ways and means to address potential market anomalies. His well-known works - about the theory of protectionism and about the corporatist theory - had a resounding echo in his time, enjoyed close attention in Latin America. One of his book, "Teoria protecţionismului şi a schimburilor internaţionale" (The Theory of Protectionism and of International Exchanges) had a significant impact on the Customs Law of 1931 in Brazil and on the whole industrialization process of South America.
Key words: Mihail Manoilescu, economic theories, corporatist doctrine, protectionism theory

Veronica TURCUŞ « Back
Avatarurile Academiei Române sub comunism. Relaţiile cu mediul academic italian: Giuseppe Lugli - membru al Academiei Române

The Italian historian, topographer and archaeologist Giuseppe Lugli (1890-1967) is mentioned in Italian historiography for the contributions on the study of Ancient Rome's monuments, on the Roman suburban villas, for publishing the corpus of pertinent epigraphic sources of the Roman topography and for promoting aerial pictures as a groundbreaking research method in his domain. His connections with the Romanian School in Rome - where he worked first as a secretary and then as a scientific adviser, throughout its whole existence, from 1922 to 1947 - and his role in developing Romanian - Italian cultural relationships both in the inter-war period and after the World War II, all these nominated him as one of the pro-Romanian Italian scholars. His scientific merits and, at the same time, the contribution to the development of the Romanian-Italian relationships, have determined the election of G. Lugli as a foreign corresponding member of the Romanian Academy on July 8th 1926, following the proposal of Vasile Pârvan, at the time the Secretary General of the Romanian Academy and the headmaster of the Romanian School in Rome. Professor Lugli maintained a relationship with Romania in the post-war years, contributing to a series of pro-Latin cultural initiatives of the period (the celebration of the bimillenium of the poet Ovidiu in autumn 1957 or the bringing to Bucharest, in 1967, of the copies of Trajan's column, manufactured at the beginning of World War II and kept in Rome until that time). As a consequence, the R.P.R. Academy reconfirmed G. Lugli on February 3rd 1965 as an honorary member of the highest scientific institution in our country. Professor Lugli enjoyed the recognition of his work first in Italy and then in the pontifical medium, being chosen, in 1938, as corresponding member of the most prestigious Italian Academy, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Having become a tenured member of the previously mentioned Academy in 1946, Giuseppe Lugli would improve the relationships with post-war Romania mainly as a representative of Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei and as a former scientific adviser of the Romanian school in Rome. The documents published in the appendix contain information regarding the relationship between the Romanian Academy and Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in the 1957-73 period and are relevant for reconstructing the dynamic of external relationships of the Romanian Academy, being confronted at the time with the pressures of the ideocratic regime.
Key words: Romanian Academy, Communist regime, Giuseppe Lugli, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Romanian-Italian relationships

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