Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it (George Santayana, 1863-1952)
HOME
PRESENTATION
Printed Numbers
BDI Indexation
Photo Gallery
EDITORIAL
Editorial Board
Scientific Committee
Contact
TERMS OF PUBLICATION
Editorial Guidlines
Reviewing of Articles
Publishing Ethics
HISTORICA YEARBOOK
Yearbook's Archive
Advanced search
HISTORICA SUPPLEMENT
Supplement's Archive
"G. BARIŢIU" INSTITUTE

Content of the YEARBOOK No. XLVI from 2007



IN HONOREM
Nicolae EDROIUA Life Dedicated to History: Member of Academy Camil Mureşanu at the age of 80PDF
abstract
Lucian NASTASĂCamil Mureşanu at its 80th anniversaryPDF
abstract
Stelian MÂNDRUŢ"History as Art of Living": Cornelia BodeaPDF
abstract
THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY AT ITS 140th ANNIVERSARY
Camil MUREŞANUThoughts Regarding the History of AcademiesPDF
abstract
Lidia GROSSThe Beginnings of a Collection: "Documente privind istoria României". Seria C. Transilvania (Documents from Romania's History. Series C. Transylvania)PDF
abstract
Adinel C. DINCĂThe Mediaeval Researchers at the Institute of National History in Cluj during the Interwar DecadesPDF
abstract
Stelian MÂNDRUŢHistorians from Cluj, Members of the Romanian Academy. Researchers and University Profesors during the Interwar PeriodPDF
abstract
Gheorghe IANCUThe Transylvanian Members of the Romanian Academy 1919The Transylvanian Members of the Romanian Academy (1919)PDF
abstract
Gelu NEAMŢUAlexandru Roman and the Romanian Academy (1866-1897)PDF
abstract
CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS, ACTORS AND PRACTICES
Zsolt SIMONThe First Printed Works in Transylvania (Sibiu, 1525)PDF
abstract
Florin BEDECEANThe Disciplin Problem in the Sinodes of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church in the 18th CenturyPDF
abstract
Ela COSMAAustria's Consulates, Consular Agencies and "Starosties" in the Moldavian Principality (1846-1850)PDF
abstract
Loránd MÁDLYMentalities and Political Perceptions Reflected in Poems, Songs and Pamphlets of the Transylvanian Saxons 1849-1860PDF
abstract
Mihaela BEDECEANThe Romanian Ecclesiastical Press in Transylvania 1850-1875PDF
abstract
Mirela ANDREIBetween Community Will and the Bishop's Decision. The Priest Institution in Năsăud in the Second Half of the 19th CenturyPDF
abstract
Vlad POPOVICISeptimiu Albini at "Tribuna" in Sibiu (1886-1894)PDF
abstract
Ludovic BÁTHORYThe Development of the Coal Industry in Central Europe (1919-1929)PDF
abstract
Giuseppe MUNARINICittadini romeni iscritti nell'universita di Padova nel periodo interbellico (1919-1945)PDF
abstract
Manfred REHBINDERDie politischen Schriften des Rechtssoziologen Eugen Ehrlich auf dem Hintergrund seines bewegten LebensPDF
abstract
HISTORY AND DIPLOMACY
Daniela MITEAWallachia's Relations with Transylvania during the Reigns of Basarab IVth the Younger (Ţepeluş)PDF
abstract
Hadrian GORUNSteps Undertaken by the Romanian State Regarding the Supply with War Materials (1915)PDF
abstract
Ottmar TRAŞCĂThe SS Police Attachés of the German Legation in Bucharest and the Influence of Their Activity upon the Development of the Romanian-German Relationship, 1940-1944PDF
abstract
THE COMMUNIST REGIM: STRUCTURES AND RESISTANCE
Peter WEBERThe Repatriation of the Deportated Jews from Transnistria and the Question of Their Integration in the Postwar RomaniaPDF
abstract
Andrea FÜRTÖSThe Administration Personal of the Sighet Prison (1950-1955). Human Profiles PDF
abstract
Dorin DOBRINCUThe Anticommunist Armed Resistance in the Făgăraş Mountains the Northern Versant."The Făgăraş Carpathian Group"/ Ion Gavrilă's Group (1949/1950-1955/1956)PDF
abstract
Florian BANUThe Instrumentalization of the Past. The Miners' Strike in the Jiu Valley August 1977 as Seen by the Romanian Information ServicePDF
abstract
SCIENTIFIC LIFE
The 7th Session of the Romanian-Slovakian History Commission, Arad-Nădlac, 22nd-26th May 2006 (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF

The Session of the Romanian-Hungarian History Commission, Budapest, 13th-14th November 2006 (Stelian Mândruţ)PDF

The Activity of the History Institute "George Bariţ" 2006 (Codruţa Bîlc)PDF

Books Received by the Library of the History Institute 2006-2007 (Mihaela Bedecean)PDF

IN MEMORIAM
Virgil Cândea, member of the Romanian Academy (Camil Mureşanu)PDF
Paul Cernovodeanu, member of the Romanian Academy (Nicolae Edroiu)PDF

Prof. univ. dr. Andrÿs Magyari (Csucsuja Istvan)PDF

Prof. univ. dr. Grigore Ploeşteanu (Gheorghe Iancu)PDF



Abstracts / Résumé / Zusammenfassungen


Nicolae EDROIU  « Back
A Life Dedicated to History: Member of Academy Camil Mureşanu at the age of 80

The study addresses several items on the work of academician Camil Muresanu, commemorating 80 years of age. The author lists the contributions of Camil Muresanu to the evolution of Romanian and the universal historiography.
Key words: Camil Muresanu, Romanian Academy, Romanian Historiography

Lucian NASTASĂ  « Back
Camil Mureşanu at its 80th anniversary

The article is a brief evocation of the life and work of historian and academician Camil Muresanu occasioned with celebration the age of 80 years.
Key words: Camil Muresanu, Romanian Academy, History, Romania

Stelian MÂNDRUŢ  « Back
Geschichte als Kunst des Lebens: Cornelia Bodea (In honorem, Cornelia Bodea)

Der Verfasser ehrt skizzenartig eine der markantesten Persönlichkeiten der heutigen Geschichtsschrebung Rumäniens. Das der rumänischen Modernität gewidmeten Werk der Frau Bodea, das auf lebenslang hergestellt worden ist, beweist ihre Gelehrsamkeit, Zuverlässigkeit, Bescheidenheit.
Key words: Cornelia Bodea, Romanian Academy, 1848 Revolution, National Movement

Camil MUREŞANU  « Back
Einige Gedanken in bezug auf die Geschichte der Akademien

Der Verfasser fasst kurz am Anfang des Beitrags die etymologisch-historische Entwicklung des Begriffs "Akademie" von der griechischen Antike, durch Mittelalter und Renaisscence bis in der Neuzeit zusammen. Man unterstreicht, dass die erste bedeutsamere Verkörperung dieser Idee war die 1635 durch die Unterstützung Kardinals Richelieu begründete französische Akademie, die ursprünglich linguistisch-literarische Aufgaben hatte. Eine besondere Aufmerksamkeit wurde der Entwicklungs des Begriffs unter den rumänischen Gelehrten Siebenbürgens oder aus Rumänien gewidmet. Ihren Bemühungen zufolge enstand schrittweise zwischen 1860 und 1879 die Rumänische Akademie, eine Institution, die als hochrangige wissenschaftliche Einrichtung des Landes viele u. a. historisch-archäologische bzw. literarische Forschungen von markante Persönlichkeiten durchgeführte, förderte.
Key words: Romanian Academy, Historiography, Europe, 19th Century

Lidia GROSS  « Back
Am Anfang einer Urkundenedition: "Documente privind Istoria României. Seria C. Transilvania"

Die Verfasserin rekonstituiert die ersten zehn Jahre - die 1950er - aus der Geschichte einer für die mittelalterliche Geschichte Rumäniens sehr wichtigen Edition von Urkunden. Das Editionsunternehmen wurde im Rahmen des Klausenburger Geschichtsinstitut der rumänischen Akademie für Wissenschaften von einem Kreis von hervorragenden Fachleuten, die nicht nur die ersten 6 Bänden der Reihe, sondern auch die wichtigsten Hilfsmittel der rumänischen Mediävistik (Lexika, Ortsnamenbücher, Einleitungen zur Paläographie, Diplomatik, Sphragistik, Chronologie) unter einem großen zeitlichen und ideologischen Druck veröffentlicht haben.
Key words: Historical Documents, Middle Age, Transylvania, Collection

Adinel DINCĂ  « Back
Die Mediävisten des Klausenburger Institut für Nationalgeschichte in der Zwischenkriegszeit

Das kurz nach dem Ende des 1. Weltkrieg gegründete Klausenburger Institut für Nationalgeschichte erlebte bis um 1945 eine der günstigsten Etappen seiner Existenz. Viele von den markantesten Persönlichkeiten, die dazu beigetragen haben, waren gerade im Bereich der Mediävistik tätig. Heute sind z. B. die mediävistischen Leistungen (die Mehrzahl direkt von den Institutspublikationen vermittelt) von I. Lupaş, A. Lapedatu (die beiden Begründer des Instituts), I. Moga, S. Dragomir, A. Decei, M. Dan und viele andere noch Standardweke in Rumänien. Der Beitrag tematisiert also die wichtigsten Forschungsrichtungen jener Generation und stellt die folgende Frage: In wie weit wurden solche geschichtswissenschaftliche Untersuchungen von der heutigen rumänischen Mediävistik Siebebürgens weitergeführt oder nicht?
Key words: Middle Age, Interwar Period, Transylvania, Historical Research, Cluj

Stelian MÂNDRUŢ  « Back
Klausenburger Historiker, Mitglieder der Rumänischen Akademie, Forscher und Universitätsprofessoren in der Zwischenkriegszeit

Der Beitrag beabsichtigt eine Hervorhebung der historiographischen Tätigkeit, die im Rahmen der Klausenburger Forschungseinrichtungen geschafft wurde. In diesem Zusammenhang eine besondere Rolle haben die Historiker, die Mitglieder der Akademie waren und in Klausenburg durch Lehre und Forschung bei der Universität aktiv waren. Viele davon sind dann später für ihren berufsmässigen Glaube zum Opfer physisch oder geistlich gefallen: S. Dragomir, I. Lupaş, I. Ursu, V. Bogrea, Al. Lapedatu, N. Bănescu, S. Dragomir, C. Marinescu. Das Werk der Mitglieder der rumänischen Akademie in der 20er, 30er und 40er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts haben entscheidend zur Entwicklung der rumänischen Geschichtsschreibung beigetrage.
Key words: Cluj, Transylvania, Romanian Academy, Interwar Period, University

Gheorghe IANCU  « Back
The Transylvanian Members of the Romanian Academy 1919The Transylvanian Members of the Romanian Academy (1919)

April 9, November 28, December 1, 1918, May 14, 1919 are turning points in political and cultural history of the Romanian people. The first three priceless treasures of the year 1918 marked the final moments of the establishment of the state unity of Romanian people, and the last the General Assembly of the Academy, honoring the 50th anniversary of the prestigious institution (the event could not take place in 1916). The link between them is intrinsic. The Academy through organization, composition and activity asserts itself as a scientific institution of full unity for the Romanians.
The solemn meeting of the Academy of May 14, 1919, was attended by King Ferdinand I, honorary chairman of the meeting, Queen Mary and Crown Prince Carol.
In several plenary sessions in June 1919 - solemn session ended on June 14 - Academy plenum, at the proposal of the Sections, has chosen as full members from Transylvania, Gheorghe Bogdan-Duica (1866-1934) and Octavian Goga (1881-1938) at the literary section (June 4), as correspondents members Ion Agârbiceanu (1882-1963) and Onisifor Ghibu (1883-1972), Zenovie Pâclişanu (1886-1957) and Stefan Metes (1887-1977) at the historical section (June 5, 7).
Romanian Academy has awarded the high title of honorary members to some politicians from Transylvania remarkable representatives in the field of political and national struggles or to those who have contributed to the prosperity through culture of the peoples whom they belonged to: Gheorghe Dima (1847-1925), Miron Cristea (1868-1939), Vasile Goldiş (1862-1934), Valeriu Branişte (1869-1928), Iuliu Maniu (1873-1953), Friedrich Teutsch (1852-1933) (June 7) and Vasile Suciu (1873-1935) (June 11).
Further it is shown the scientific and national-cultural activity of each elected member. With the passage of time their "portraits" acquired other traits, gained consistency and value. Then and now, Romanian Academy enjoys a great prestige in Romanian society and within the framework of international scientific elites.
Key words: Transylvania, Romanian Academy, First World War

Gelu NEAMŢU  « Back
Alexandru Roman and the Romanian Academy (1866-1897)

Alexandru Roman a été un des plus remarquables représentants de la vie culturelle et politique, des Roumains du Bihor pendant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle.
L'étude présente sont activité, déroulée sous les auspices de l'Académie depuis sa nomination comme membre permanent (1866-67) jusqu'à sa mort (1897).
L'une des contributions de cet ouvrage est d'avoir mis en évidence l'activité de Roman destinée à la sauvegarde de beaucoup d'écoles roumaines de Transylvanie et de Hongrie menacées par la dénationalisation.
Les résultats suggestifs d'une rigoureuse analyse des documentes d'archives mènent à la constatation que par les étroites relations qu'il a entretenues avec la qualité de membre de l'Académie, Alexandru Roman à pleinement mis à profit les possibilités de rendre d'importants services tant à la culture roumaine, qu' à la cause politique des Roumains à l'idéal d'unité nationale, pour laquelle il a lutté conséquemment durant toute sa vie.
Key words: Alexandru Roman, Romanian Academy, Transylvania, Nationalities

SIMON Zsolt  « Back
The first printings of Transylvania (Sibiu, 1525)

It was known that the first Transylvanian press functioned in Sibiu between 1528 and 1530, but it was not known any printing to perpetuate itself until our days. In this study I present three of the first printings of this press, extracted form the cover of a volume of the Teleki-Bolyai Library of Târgu-Mureş. These printings were of one page, decorated with initials and border ornaments. One of them contained a calendar of the moving feasts, the other one the text of the Credo, while the third one the following religious texts: Our Father, Ave Maria, Decalogue, Magnificat and the antiphonies Veni sancte spiritus and Salve regina. Based on the text placed in the front of the calendar results that it was the first printing of Transylvania and it was printed in Sibiu in 1525 by the typographers Lukas Trapoldner and Valentin Corvinus. With they content, the printings seem that had serve a double goal. The first aim was to strengthen the faith, and the second goal it seems that it was to serve or to propagate the cult of Holy Mary.
Key words: Transylvania, Sibiu, 16th Century, Theobaldus Gryphius

Florin BEDECEAN  « Back
Die Disziplinfrage in den Synoden der rumänischen griechisch-katholische Kirche im 18. Jh.

Die Besprechung der Disziplinfrage in den Synoden der mit Rom unierten rumänischen (griechisch-katholischen) Kirche im 18. Jahrhundert zeigt, aufgrund klarer Beweise, den Mangel gesunder Sitten bei Geistlichen und Weltlichen und die zu deren Berichtigung getroffenen Strafen. Wenn die Bekleidung der Priester in meisten Fällen passend war, so kam es bei den von den unierten Bischöfen im 18. Jahrhundert durchgeführten kanonischen Visitationen hervor, daß es viele ungepflegte, ja sogar beschädigte Kirchen (die meisten von ihnen Holzkirchen) gab, ohne liturgische Bücher, Ornate und Kultusgefäße. Was die Weltlichen betrifft, so unterstrichen zahlreiche Synoden die Notwendigkeit, die Frömmigkeit und die Sittlichkeit der Gläubigen zu verbessern, den Aberglauben preiszugeben und die Teilnahme am kirchlichen Leben zu fördern.
Key words: 18th Century, Greek Catholic Church, Sinodality, Priests, Bishops

Ela COSMA  « Back
Österreichs Konsulate, Konsularagentien und Starostien im Fürstentum Moldau (1846-1850)

Das Klausenburger Institut für Geschichte bewahrt einen 1848er Urkundenbestand von mehr als 1300 Dokumenten, die von Victor Cheresteşiu in den 60er Jahren fotokopiert und von der Verfasserin verzeichnet und bearbeitet wurden. Als Endresultat des Unternehmens ist das Buch Revoluţia de la 1848-1849. Un catalog de documente şi regeste. (Fondul Institutului de Istorie din Cluj) (Die 1848-1849er Revolution. Ein Katalog von Urkunden und Regesten. Der Bestand des Klausenburger Geschichte Institutes), Editura Argonaut, Cluj, 2005, 2 Bd., 279 + 316 S. erschienen. 55 Urkunden des erwähnten Bestandes beziehen sich auf die Tätigkeit der k.k. Konsularagentie in Jassy und der k.k. Starostien in Focşani, Huşi, Bârlad und Bacău, während weitere 36 Dokumente die Tätigkeit des österreichischen Konsulats zu Galatz, in den Jahren 1846-1850, also unmittelbar vor, während und nach der Revolution, widerspiegeln. Der vorliegende Aufsatz, wie jener über Casimir von Timoni, k.k. Konsularagent in der Wallachei (1832-1849), veröffentlicht im Anuarul Institutului de Istorie Cluj / 2006, ist Teil eines den diplomatischen Beziehungen der Habsburgermonarchie in den Donaufürstentümern, in Serbien und Konstantinopel in den Revolutionsjahren von 1848-1849 gewidmeten, zu erscheinenden Buches.
Key words: Austria, 19th Century, Moldavian Principality, Consular, austro-moldavian relations

Loránd MÁDLY  « Back
Politische Auffassungen und Stellungen in Gedichte, Lieder und Pamphlete der Siebenbürger Sachsen zwischen 1849-1860

Die politischen Auffassungen, Stellungen, aber auch der Widerhall der Ereignisse spiegeln sich besonders ausdrucksvoll in den literarischen Werken im Umfeld der Siebenbürger Sachsen zur Zeit des Neoabsolutismus. In dieser Zeitspanne wurden mehrere Gedichte, Lieder und Pamphlete verfasst, die ausschließlich eine politische Thematik haben, und die vor allem nach 1860 veröffentlicht wurden. Die Analyse dieser Werke - die häufig von Pfarrer oder Lehrer geschrieben wurden - ist sehr wichtig, da diese die politische Haltung in der Gesellschaft schildern. Hier kann man die Freude gegenüber dem Ende der Revolution von 1848-1849, gemischt mit der Traurigkeit wegen der strengen Politik der neoabsolutistischen Regierung vorfinden. Besonders gut widerspiegeln sich hier die Meinungen über die politischen Verluste der Siebenbürger Sachsen in diese Zeitspanne.
Key words: Transylvanian Saxons, Neoabsolutism, Vienna, Franz Joseph, Imagology

Mihaela BEDECEAN  « Back
Die rumänische Kirchenpresse in Siebenbürgen (1850-1875)

Im Rahmen der rumänischen Presse in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts, spielte die Kirchenpresse eine Sonderrolle. Diese besprach zahlreiche Themen, ohne sich ausschließlich auf die Behandlung von kirchlichen Gegenständen zu begrenzen. Im Vergleich zu den griechisch-katholischen Periodika, wirken die orthodoxen kräftiger und langlebiger. Die Redaktion der Kirchenzeitungen bestand aus Vertretern der rumänischen Intellektualität, aus jungen Talenten mit Studien im Ausland oder in den großen Kulturzentren der österreichsischen Monarchie. Die Leserschaft dieser Sonderkathegorie der Presse wiederfand sich hauptsächlich in den Reihen der Geistlichen. Trotzdem kannten die Kirchenzeitungen auch in der Mitte der rumänischen Intellektuellen Ausbreitung. Die Pränumerationsliste ist nicht identisch mit der Leserzahl, da die Kirchenblätter häufig in der Kirche oder öffentlich von Priestern und Ortsintellektuellen vorgelesen wurden.
Key words: History of Press, Church, Transylvania, Telegraful Roman

Mirela ANDREI « Back
Between Community Will and the Bishop's Decision. The Priest Institution in Năsăud in the Second Half of the 19th Century

The parishes belonging to the Vicarage of Rodna have sketched over time their own religious identity. This was legitimate in the filiation established with the tradition of Făgăra? Episcopate, regarded as the only preserver of the "uncontaminated" specificity of Romanian Greek Catholic Church and within the specificity of communities concerned, that of frontier, free villages. One of the defining elements of what we have called Năsăud religious identity consisted of the involvement of religious communes in Rodna valley in the procedure of appointing priests, by using their right to select them. The various situations investigated in that time reveal that in most cases the villages in the Vicarage of Năsăud were in fact making the first selection of candidates. Therefore, they had a right that, during the neo-absolutist and liberal period, the episcopacy admitted, observing it almost unconditionally.
But with the increasing demands regarding the aspirants for a position of parish and following the rights granted to bishops by the Concordat of 1855, the diocesan bodies of Gherla were more and more evidently involved in the process of appointing priests, in the sense of imposing their own candidate without consulting the will of village communities. The episcopal bodies have increasingly appealed to the new practice, especially in the 70s of the XIX-th century. In the vison of Năsăud communes, this infringed on the one hand the prerogatives of the foraneous vicar, and on the other hand it ignored their former right of choice. The struggle for observing the ancient Năsăud right has grown during some bishops with Latinist views (Mihail Pavel, Ioan Szabó), manifesting as a reply to the type of diocesan policy that they practiced.
In the vicarage of Rodna, one of the most tense episodes in the struggle for primacy in appointing the priest between the episcopacy and the communities took place in the first half of 1874. The incident reported the perspective of separating the parishes from the episcopacy as this, by the attitude it displayed proved to be foreign to the deep desires, to the habits deeply rooted in the collective - religious consciousness of communities in its area of administrative and spiritual government.
Eventually the conflict was resolved, but in the future, although the episcopacy did not formally recognize Năsăud parishes the right of choice, most of the time it took into account their proposals and preferences for a particular candidate. This meant the "de facto" perpetuation in Năsăud land of the right of the church community to choose its priest.
Key words: Transylvania, Nasaud, Community, Bishops, Greek Catholic Church

Vlad POPOVICI  « Back
Septimiu Albini à «Tribuna» de Sibiu (1886-1894)

En 1884 paraît à Sibiu le journal «Tribuna», dont la rédaction duquel a activé, entre 1886-1894 Septimiu Albini. Au commencement, il a pris le post de Corneliu Pop Păcurariu, qui effectuait une condamnation suivant une cause de presse. Plus tard, en 1888, S. Albini a remplacé I. Slavici, qui se trouvait dans la prison de Vác. Le jeune rédacteur s'est fort impliqué dans les débats politiques et journalistiques autour du Mémorandum (1892). Dans le proces du Mémorandum il a été condamné, en 1894, á 30 mois de prison, mais il s'est réfugié en Roumanie en novembre, la meme année.
Key words: Sibiu, Tribuna Newspaper, Septimiu Albini, National Movement

Ludovic BÁTHORY  « Back
The Development of the Coal Industry in Central Europe (1919-1929)

The study analyzes the main trends in the development of coal industry in Central Europe during 1919-1929. The case study refers to Poland. The author analyzes the situation for the main coal producers in Poland. The author shows that this country has hardly been able to restore production, especially because until 1922 Germany still belonged to Silesia. After 1922 the situation changed radically. Poland has become a coal exporter. Internally, increased production led to a fairly obvious change to the country's economic structure with long-term developmental effects.
Key words: Coal, Industry, Jiu Valley, Interwar Period, Crisis, Growth, Stagnation, Nationalism

Giuseppe MUNARINI  « Back
Romanians Enrolled at the University of Padua in the Interwar Period (1919-1945)

This study captures issues related to the presence of Romanian citizens in Italy as students from various faculties of the University of Padua in the interwar period. A first observation is that, if in the last quarter of century nineteenth century few Romanian students have studied at the University of Padua, the interwar period there was a significant increase of these students here. This gradually increase must be regarded in the context of a general increase in the number of foreign students enrolled at the University of Padua. A brief analysis of the presence of foreign students at the mentioned university between two world wars, reveals that Romanians were generally on the first three positions, sometimes surpassed only by Hungarians or Poles. Romanian students who studied at Padua in the first part of that period came mainly from Transylvania and Bukovina, but then fame of University spread in all Romanian area, attracting young people from other regions. Among the options of the Romanian students stood first Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, followed by the Pharmacy and Science, few of them decided for law or engineering, for example. Towards the end of the interwar period, in the context of tightening the racial laws in Italy there was a decrease in the number of foreign students in general and the Romanian especially because many of them were Hebrew. Interaction of Romanian students with University of Padua had a beneficial impact on both sides. On one hand, students form Romania had in this way access to the latest western scientific innovations, while foreign students belonging to different ethnic groups, have enabled the University of Padua to assume even in those years of nationalism, a more open feature to "foreigners".
Key words: University, Padua, Elites, Interwar Period, Peregrinatio Academica

Manfred REHBINDER  « Back
Die politischen Schriften des Rechtssoziologen Eugen Ehrlich auf dem Hintergrund seines bewegten Lebens

In his fundamental "Grundlegung der Soziologie des Rechts" appeared in 1913, Eugen Ehrlich introduces the concept of "lebendes Recht", defining it as a result of social action. Consistent with his beliefs on whether a case based on "living right" in multicultural societies, Ehrlich launched and supported between 1909-1914 a special seminar "living right". The multicultural profile of Bucovina not only influenced the structure of the professors and students form University of Czernowitz, but also the direction of scientific preocupations, especially in the case of Eugen Ehrlich. For Ehrlich theory and practice of law are closely related to the characteristics of society. Bukovina is a special case for how social structure and regularities can become sources of law. The period when Eugen Ehrlich actived as a professor of Roman law at the Franz-Joseph University of Czernowitz (between 1896 and 1919), coincided with the peak of his scientific production. The outbreak of First World War forced him to leave Bucovina, because of Russian military threat. This period coincided with disappearance of the Danube Monarchy. In November 1918 Bucovina became part of the Kingdom of Romania and the Franz-Joseph University of Czernowitz became the "Ferdinand I"University. Eugen Ehrlich's attempts to return as a professor at the University of his native city had no chance of success, because of opposition groups which included the rector, Ion Nistor or a part of the Romanian students with anti-Semitic sentiments. Ehrlich was at that time seen as a traitor to the cause of the Czernowitz University, because he claimed openly for its abolition, arguing that such an institution is not justified in a region economically underdeveloped as Bucovina. Although Ehrlich's image has suffered, especially on the end of his career, he still enjoyed the support of leading figures of Rumanian scientific and cultural life. Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga and sociologist Dimitrie Gusti openly supported him by giving him the opportunity to hold a series of conferences or publishing in Bucharest. Eugen Ehrlich's complex personality, created sympathies and antipathies alike, but he remains in terms of his original contributions to the theory and practice of law, as a leading exponent of Bucovina academic life.
Key words: Eugen Erlich, Politics, Czernowitz, Bukowina, Sociology

Daniela MITEA  « Back
The Relations between Wallachia and Transylvania during the reigns of Basarab IV the Young (Ţepeluş)

Beginning with a focused chronological analysis upon economical and political relations between Walachia, Transylvania and Hungarian Kingdom during Basarab IV the Young's three short reigns (between 1477 and 1482), this study aims to reveal how crusade and diplomacy, shifting across Christian and Ottoman political borders, influenced Walachia ruler's actions and attitudes towards Transylvanian and Hungarian authorities. Forced by the Ottoman power to settle a clear political line, "Ţepeluş" didn't manage to maintain Christian rulers' trust, and, consequently, he wasn't recognized as a legitimate leader, with all economical, political and personal injuries following from that, even his removal from the throne.
Key words: Wallachia, Trasylvania, Basarab IV, Diplomacy, Hungary, Middle Age

Hadrian GORUN  « Back
Steps Undertaken by the Romanian State Regarding the Supply with War Materials (1915)

The problem of endowment Romania with military equipment was particularly acute at the beginning of the First World War. One essential reason for which Romania has deliberately delayed rallying to the Entente and warfare was the insufficient equipment in terms of war materials. After the outbreak of World War I in the summer 1914, the Entente has increased efforts to achieve Romania's military contest. In these circumstances, the diplomats of the states belonging to Entente fell by the end of November 1914 the great need to deliver weapons and ammunition to Romania. 1915 marked only the beginning towards the supply of arms and ammunition in Romania. Outcomes were controversial. In the year that followed, in 1916, has made some progress in the rate of supply, but the shipped quantities were still insufficient, a peremptory proof that Romanian army had suffered shortly after the outbreak of campaign painful defeats.
Key words: First World War, Romania, Entente, France, Central Powers, Agreements

Ottmar TRAŞCĂ  « Back
The SS Police Attachés of the German Legation in Bucharest and the Influence of Their Activity upon the Development of the Romanian-German Relationship, 1940-1944

The present study proposes a reconstruction and presentation of the context and objectives pursued by the Reich when appointing the SS police attachés at the German legation in Bucharest in the period 1940-1944. Using unpublished German and Romanian archival sources it examines the attributes and activity of these attachés in Romania, the manner in which they collaborated with the Romanian authorities, the perception of their presence and their activity in various political and diplomatic circles, and last but not least, the effect of their presence in Romania upon the relations between the principal institutions of the Third Reich, namely the Foreign Ministry and the Reich Security Central Office (RSHA).
Key words: SS Police, Germany, Nazi, Second World War, Antonescu, Hitler

Peter WEBER  « Back
The Repatriation of the Deportated Jews from Transnistria and the Question of Their Integration in the Postwar Romania

The study refers to the issue of repatriation of deported Jews in Transnistria in 1940-1941. Repatriation process began in 1941, but this problem was delayed by Antonescu's regime, so that very few Jews have actually been repatriated. While the deportees were stripped for their entire possessions by Romanian state in 1941, repatriation costs had to be covered by the Jews community from the country.
The second phase of the repatriation of deportees Jews took place after the removal of the Antonescu regime. This time they were helped by the Romanian government, in addition to several organization of Jews, such as Jewish Joint Distibution Committee. The most difficult problem was related to the restitution of properties confiscated by the former. A good part of those who profited from "romanization laws" were high military officials. Thus, although the decree-law of December 1944 stipulated the restitution of property confiscated, some veiled political groups expressed their opposition to the repair of law. Then came the threat from the new communist regime which determined a process of mass emigration of Jews from Romania to the West.
Key words: Second World War, Jews, Holocaust, Transnistria, Soviet Union, Stalinism

Andrea FÜRTÖS « Back
The Administration Personal of the Sighet Prison (1950-1955). Human Profiles

Within the Romanian penitenciary sistem, the prison from Sighet had its special place, both by the perspective of those imprisoned here between 1950-1955 and that of the administrativ staff. The staff structure of the prison, with few changes in time, was as follows: chief warden, political secretary, informative oficer, oficer on duty, physician, medical assistant, accountant, court's clerk, wardens and privates for the security of the prison. The staff of the prison, especialy the wardens, was interchanged almost permanently: only in very few cases they were kept from the middele of 1950 to July 1955. They came from different parts of the country, from poor families living in rural areas, with no, or scarce education, asigned by The General Directon of The Panitenciaries between 1949-1950. As proven by documents, there were about 70 wardens who worked between Mai 1950 and July 1955. The informations in these documents are essential to understand the mecanism of the comunist regime to destroy the interwar Romanian political elite. One of the characteristics of the regime was the dissimulation, treancherousness of most individuals: people rarely spoke out what they were thinking, they expressed opinions and feeling they didn't have, things they didn't believe in and, in fact, they disputed. This behavior was typical for the wardens as well. They had to impress by callousness, by using heavy words but, when they were not seen by their superiors, some of them proved to be quite humane.
Key words: Stalinism, Securitate, Repression, Sighet Prison, Communism

Dorin DOBRINCU « Back
The Anticommunist Armed Resistance in the Făgăraş Mountains the Northern Versant."The Făgăraş Carpathian Group"/ Ion Gavrilă's Group (1949/1950-1955/1956)

One of the most important areas where armed anticommunist resistance acted was that of the Făgăraş Mountains - north side. After they acted, in 1948-1949/1950, in different subversive organizations, destroyed by the authorities, several young people from the towns and villages of the former Făgăraş county chose to flee in the mountains lying in the south of their region. The main advantage was offered by the very geographical circumstances, here lying the most important massif in the country. The members of the group - which had different names: "Grupul carpatin făgărăşan" (Făgăraş Carpathians Group), "Grupul 73 Carpatin de eliberare naţională" (73 Carpathians Group for National Freedom), or simply Gavrilă Group (the Securitate used the name of "Gavrilă band) - were in their majority members of the Cross Brotherhoods, the youth organization of the Legionary Movement; they were university or high school students, but also blue-collar workers, farmers and foresters. The acknowledged leader was Ion Gavrilă.
The fighters/partisans proper (those who actually wore the arms) were few, even very few (11-14). They gradually learnt the tactics of the guerrilla war. Although they did not start punitive actions against local communist administration, the Făgăraş partisans became famous at the time by their bold attacks against economic or touristic units (the famous operation at the chalet Bâlea Cascadă, august 1952). They proved to be fair in their relationship to the civilians, a fact that even Securitate admitted in its numerous files. Given the partisans' boldness and the fact they were shattering the Stalinist dogma of the absolute control upon the territory and population, the authorities brought there extremely numerous troops from the repressive structures. Securitate would admit somehow publicly, more than two decades after the neutralization of Gavrilă group, that this group and the Arnăuţoiu group (on the south side of the Făgăraş Mountains) were the ones against which the operative troops had carried on the "most complex and long-lasting actions". Numerous Securitate battalions crossed the Făgăraş Mountains. We would probably not be wrong to say that there was no operational unit of the political police that should not have participated in the actions against Gavrilă group. More, in some of the actions that took place north the Olt river, subunits of the Romanian Poplar Republic Army from the region of Cincu (where there was a famous rifle range) participated as well. We should also remind of the important Militia troops and the very big number of informers mobilized for the annihilation of Gavrilă group. The partisans succeeded in holding out for a few years, under very difficult circumstances. Without the locals' help they could not survive but for a very short while. Hundreds and hundreds of people were maltreated, imprisoned and even killed because of the support they had offered to the resistance movement.
The Securitate eventually infiltrated into the Făgăraş resistance group, as it happened in almost all cases we know in Romania. In 1955-1956, the armed members of the group were trapped and captured. They were tried, sentenced to death and executed at Jilava, where so many anticommunist resistance members from different places of the country died. The members of the supporting networks were also arrested, tried and sentenced to many years in prison. The only one who escaped was Ion Gavrilă, who managed to hide for more than two decades. He was captured in 1976 and released after six months of investigations, as the facts had been prescribed. At that time, the anticommunist action of the group he had led was a legend in the region.
Key words: Anticommunism, Resistance, Ion Gavrilă, Făgăraş Mountains, Stalinism, Repression

Florian BANU  « Back
The Instrumentalization of the Past. The Miners' Strike in the Jiu Valley August 1977 as Seen by the Romanian Information Service

The study refers to the Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1-3 August 1977. The author's view is that, this strike was a warning to Romania's communist leadership.
Based on intelligence reports, the author examines how this event was instrumentalized by secret services since 1989. Thus in 1994 a report of the new Romanian secret services try to address the events, claiming that old Romanian secret services have had an attitude of neutrality. Finally, the author's intention is to draw attention to how historical events of the past can be manipulated.
Key words: Jiu Valley, Manipulation, Secret Services, Anticommunism, Ceausescu

Go TOP